Table of Contents and AbstractsMarch 2017, Vol. 58, No. 3



Semitendinosus myopathy and treatment with adipose-derived stem cells in working German shepherd police dogs

Melissa A. Gibson, S. Gary Brown, Nancy O. Brown (page 241)

Semitendinosus myopathy has been treated with numerous surgical and non-surgical therapies resulting in recurrence of lameness within 2 to 9 months. Eleven cases of semitendinosus myopathy diagnosed in 8 working police dogs that were treated with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were retrospectively evaluated. At short-term follow-up < 6 mo, ultrasound and gait evaluations revealed a mean reduction in the overall intramuscular lesion size of 54.82% (SD +/− 18.02; range: 30.5% to 82.7%) and reduction in the Visual Assessment Score (VAS) of 1 to 3 points. At long-term follow-up > 1 y, in 8 cases the dogs had a normal gait and in 3 cases the dogs had an improved gait compared with initial examination, and all 8 dogs returned to active police work. Fisher's exact test resulted in P = 0.000008 when comparing published historical reports and these 11 cases for resolution of lameness and return to active duty.

Prospective case-control study of toe tip necrosis syndrome (TTNS) in western Canadian feedlot cattle

Chad Paetsch, Kent Fenton, Tye Perrett, Eugene Janzen, Ted Clark, Jan Shearer, Murray Jelinski (page 247)

A case-control study was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for toe tip necrosis syndrome (TTNS) in western Canadian feedlot cattle. Feedlot veterinarians provided hooves from 222 animals that died of either TTNS ("cases") or from all other causes ("controls"). The claws were sectioned by researchers to confirm the diagnoses; there was very good agreement between the practitioners' field diagnosis and that of the researchers (Cohen's kappa = 0.81; P < 0.001). The sole thickness of the apical white line region was thinner (P < 0.001) in the cases (3.74 mm) than the controls (4.72 mm). Claws from cases were 5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5 to 8.6; P < 0.001] and 7.3 times (95% CI: 1.5 to 69.3; P < 0.01) more likely than those of controls to yield a heavy growth of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, respectively. Cases were 4.4 times (95% CI: 4.4 to 22.9; P < 0.001) more likely to be acutely/transiently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus than were controls. The findings support the hypothesis that TTNS is initiated by excessive wear along the white line, leading to separation and bacterial colonization of the 3rd phalangeal bone (P3) and associated soft tissues.

Conceptualization of convenience euthanasia as an ethical dilemma for veterinarians in Quebec

Dominick Rathwell-Deault, Béatrice Godard, Diane Frank, Béatrice Doizé (page 255)

Companion animal welfare in our society has become increasingly important, yet many healthy animals are euthanized in veterinary facilities. How is it possible to explain the simultaneous presence of these opposing views of obligation toward animals? The goal of this study was to describe convenience euthanasia of companion animals as experienced by veterinarians in order to understand their thought processes. A qualitative study was undertaken to analyze the results of interviews of 14 veterinarians. The study showed that veterinarians interviewed assessed convenience euthanasia based mainly on their subjective evaluation of the owner-animal bond. As most owner-animal bonds stem from an anthropocentric point of view, decisions on convenience euthanasia were taken mostly by considering the veterinarian's and the client/owner's interests.

Case Reports

Dexmedetomidine to control signs associated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate toxidrome in a cat

Christopher L. Norkus, Iain Keir, Charlotte Means (page 261)

A 5-month-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat had mydriasis, agitation, and increased locomotion after ingestion of lisdexamfetamine, 10.3 mg/kg body weight (BW). Despite treatment with IV fluids, IV acepromazine, oral cyproheptadine and intravenous lipid emulsion the patient's clinical signs worsened. Dexmedetomidine administered at 2 µg/kg BW and continued at 0.5 µg/kg BW per hour rapidly controlled the patient's signs. An episode of vomiting and hematuria developed. Follow-up 5 days after discharge revealed that the cat appeared normal.

Kidney injury in a dog following bee sting-associated anaphylaxis

Gareth James Buckley, Christopher Corrie, Carsten Bandt, Michael Schaer (page 265)

This report describes a case of honeybee envenomation in a dog that developed anaphylaxis after being stung by approximately 10 bees. The dog subsequently developed acute kidney injury. The dog had a previous mild increase in blood urea nitrogen with normal creatinine, possibly indicating an insidious chronic renal degenerative process that went into acute decompensation at the time of bee envenomation.

Suspected bilateral phrenic nerve damage following a mediastinal mass removal in a 17-week-old pug

Mathieu Raillard, Pamela J. Murison, Ivan P. Doran (page 270)

The anesthetic management of a pediatric pug for removal of a mediastinal mass is described. During recovery from anesthesia, the dog's respiratory pattern was compatible with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. Incidence, complications, possible treatments of phrenic nerve injury, problems of long-term mechanical ventilation, and alternative case management are discussed.

Computed tomographic and angiographic assessment of spinal extradural arteriovenous fistulas in a dog

Simona Morabito, Edoardo Auriemma, Paolo Zagarella, Edy Mercuriali, Oriol Domenech, Gualtiero Gandini, Teresa Gagliardo, Eric Zini, Swan Specchi (page 275)

A 6-month-old German shepherd dog was presented for progressive paraparesis. Multiple arteriovenous fistulae and hyperostosis of the thoracic vertebrae with secondary thoraco-lumbar spinal cord compression were diagnosed. Arteriovenous spinal fistula is a rare condition but should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young dogs with progressive paraparesis.

Diagnosis and treatment of massive porcupine quill migration in a dog

Kathryn Flesher, Nathaniel Lam, Taryn A. Donovan (page 280)

A 5-year-old spayed female Boston terrier mixed breed dog was presented with porcupine quill migration. The quills were difficult to detect directly using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This case highlights difficulties faced in detecting porcupine quills with current diagnostic imaging modalities and describes surgical and medical management of a patient with massive quill migration.

Necrotizing hepatitis associated with Clostridium novyi in a pony in western Canada

Jennifer L. Davies, Francesco A. Uzal, Ashley E. Whitehead (page 285)

Severe icterus, peritoneal effusion, localized fibrinous peritonitis, and necrotizing hepatitis were found at necropsy of a 20-year-old female pony with a history of acute onset depression, inappetence, fever, and marked elevation in hepatic enzymes. Gross pathology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were compatible with a diagnosis of clostridial hepatitis caused by Clostridium novyi-group bacteria. This is believed to be the first reported case of clostridial hepatitis in an equid in Canada, and only the third report of this rare disease in North America.

Treatment of chronic sinusitis in a horse with systemic and intra-sinus antimicrobials

Danielle L. Gordon, Catherine L. Radtke (page 289)

A 12-year-old Norwegian Fjord gelding was diagnosed with paranasal sinusitis as a post-operative complication of tooth repulsion surgery. The infection with inspissated purulent material persisted despite sinus trephination and lavage, and systemic antimicrobial therapy. Resolution occurred following infusion of a gelatin/penicillin mixture into the right rostral and caudal maxillary sinus.

Brief Communications

Significance of cytological smear evaluation in diagnosis of splenic mast cell tumor-associated systemic mastocytosis in a cat (Felis catus)

Moges Woldemeskel, Anita Merrill, Cindy Brown (page 293)

An 8-year-old cat was presented with vomiting and weight loss. Histopathology and cytology revealed systemic mastocytosis, a rare condition and a clinical challenge. This case emphasizes the significance of cytological evaluation of smears in diagnosis of mastocytosis and in confirmation in biopsy specimens.

Experimental infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis resulting in decreased body weight in Holstein-Friesian calves

Gwendolyn L. Roy, Jeroen De Buck, Robert Wolf, Rienske A.R. Mortier, Karin Orsel, Herman W. Barkema (page 296)

Fifty calves inoculated at either 2 weeks or at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months of age with either a low or high dose of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) were on average 32 and 39 kg lower in body weight, respectively, compared to negative controls at 17 months of age.

Student Paper

Severe unilateral buphthalmos in a 4-month-old kitten

Gillian Finnie (page 299)

A 4-month-old kitten was presented with unilateral buphthalmos. The eye was blind with no menace response, but intraocular pressure was normal. A trans-palpebral enucleation was performed on the affected eye and the globe was submitted for histology. There was a suppurative, lympho-plasmacytic panophthalmitis with inflammatory exudate in the iridocorneal angle.


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One Welfare
Troy Bourque (page 217)


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Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 229)


Chasing higher wages: Associate veterinarian compensation through the provinces
Chris Doherty (page 303)


Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Marina L. Leis, Bianca S. Bauer (page 307)



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