Table of Contents and AbstractsJuly 2019, Vol. 83, No. 3
Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis C-type and S-type isolated from sheep and goats by using a combination of MIRU-VNTR loci
Jagdip Singh Sohal, Julie Arsenault, Anne Leboeuf, Pierre Hélie, Sébastien Buczinski, Yves Robinson, Olivia Labrecque, Virginie Lachapelle, Gilles Fecteau, Yvan L’Homme (page 160)
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis of domestic and wild ruminants. Map strains are segregated into 2 main groups or strain types referred to as sheep (S) type and cattle (C) type. Few small ruminant Map strains have been genetically characterized to date. The present study was undertaken to genetically characterize a panel of 30 small ruminant Map strains in the province of Quebec, Canada. Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units — Variable-Number Tandem Repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR) were used as genetic markers in addition to IS1311 PCR-REA. S-type and C-type strains were found in both sheep and goats, although C-type strains were more frequently isolated from goats and S-type strains were more common in sheep. A total of 12 distinct Map genotypes were uncovered in the present collection of strains using these markers. Considering the genetic diversity reported here, molecular characterization of Map stains in small ruminants using MIRU-VNTR markers represent an interesting avenue for both epidemiological investigations regarding the sources of herd infection and association studies between Map strains and their virulence, persistence and host-specific adaptation characteristics.
Molecular variability of Streptococcus uberis isolates from intramammary infections in Canadian dairy farms from the Maritime region
Julian Reyes, Juan C. Rodriguez-Lecompte, Adam Blanchard, J.T. McClure, Javier Sánchez (page 168)
The primary objective of this study was to explore the variability of Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) isolates by extracting multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data from whole-genome sequencing. The secondary objective was to determine the distribution of the phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the associated AMR genes as well as the virulence gene profiles among sequence types (STs). Sixty-two isolates were recovered from 16 herds in 3 Canadian Maritime Provinces: New Brunswick (14.5%), Nova Scotia (48.3%), and Prince Edward Island (37.1%). Of these, 9, 30, and 23 were recovered from post-calving, lactational samples, and post-mastitis samples, respectively. These 62 S. uberis isolates belonged to 34 STs; 11 isolates were typed to 9 known STs and 51 isolates were classified as one of 25 new STs. Thirteen isolates were part of major clonal complexes (CCs). Post-mastitis isolates contained 10 unique STs, lactational isolates contained 11 unique STs, and post-calving isolates had 3 STs. Each farm had only 1 isolate that was a unique ST except for STs 233, 851, 855, 857, 864, and 866, which were found in multiple cows per herd on more than one farm. ST851 and ST857 were found in each of the 3 sample types, with ST857 found in cows from all 3 Maritime provinces. These results indicate that S. uberis is a diverse non-clonal pathogen with specific STs residing in clonal clusters, carrying multiple AMR genes and virulence, with a diverse phenotypic AMR.
Salmonella shedding and seropositivity and its association with in-feed flavophospholipol in nursery pigs
Saranya Nair, Jane Newman, Abdolvahab Farzan, Robert M. Friendship (page 177)
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of in-feed flavophospholipol on Salmonella shedding and antibody response in nursery pigs. Weaned pigs were fed either a diet containing 4 ppm flavophospholipol (n = 16) or a non-medicated feed (n = 16) for 36 d. All pigs were orally challenged with a 2-mL dose of 108 colony-forming units (CFUs)/mL of Salmonella Typhimurium on Days 7 and 8 of the trial. On Day 36, all pigs were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, and ileocecal lymph nodes. Fecal and tissue samples were quantitatively cultured for Salmonella and serum samples were tested for the presence of the Salmonella antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was no difference between the 2 groups in antibody response and the presence of Salmonella in feces and tissue (P > 0.05). Medicating nursery diets with flavophospholipol at 4 ppm did not appear to reduce Salmonella infection in nursery pigs.
Accuracy of external measurements of 3-dimensional (3D) printed biomodels of the canine radius used in an in-hospital setting
Sebastian Mejia, Nikia Stewart, Angel Miller, Roman Savicky, Christopher Monarski, George E. Moore, Dennis Keith (page 181)
The objective of this study was to determine if biomodels printed on a fused deposition modeling (FDM) device from computed tomography (CT) data are accurate by comparing external measurements to the native bone, considering that the clinical usefulness of the printed biomodels in an in-hospital setting depends on their verified accuracy and consistency. Using canine cadaveric radii previously stripped of all soft tissues, 7 parameters of the actual bone and the 3-dimensional (3D) printed biomodels were measured and compared to determine how accurately the models represent the cadaveric bone. A total of 28 canine radii were collected, in which the landmarks for measurements were established. Radiographs were then taken to determine the frontal center of rotation of angulation (CORA) and CT scans were carried out. Finally, a 3D virtual reconstruction was done and converted into a stereolithography (STL) format file, from which 2 biomodels were printed per bone. Measurements for biomodels were compared for equivalence to cadaveric measurements. For the 7 measured parameters, the mean difference between biomodel and cadaveric parameters ranged from an increase of +0.66% in cranial-caudal proximal (CrCdP)-CORA to a decrease of −1.32% in distal width of the radius. For all 7 measured parameters, measurements for biomodels were statistically equivalent to their corresponding cadaveric bone (P < 0.001). The 7 measured parameters in the 3D models printed with an FDM device were not significantly different than those in the original bone. In fact, these measurements closely approximated original bone measurements (within 1.5%); therefore, validating their application in future presurgical planning for various orthopedic procedures.
Pilot study comparing serum chemotherapy levels after intra-arterial and intravenous administration in dogs with naturally occurring urinary tract tumors
Meghan Kirsch, Chick Weisse, Allyson Berent, Craig Clifford, Nicole Leibman, Luke Wittenburg, Stephen B. Solomon, Kenneth Lamb (page 187)
The proposed advantages of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) are based on the premises of local dose escalation to the tumor and reduced availability of systemic drugs. There is a lack of objective pharmacokinetic data to confirm the advantage of IAC in dogs with naturally occurring urogenital tumors. The objective of this study was to determine if IAC administration in urogenital tumors would result in decreased systemic drug exposure when compared to intravenous routes. Twenty-two dogs with naturally occurring urogenital tumors were enrolled in this prospective case-controlled study. Mitoxantrone, doxorubicin, or carboplatin were administered by IAC and intravenous routes [intravenous awake (intravenous chemotherapy — IVC) and under general anesthesia (IVGAC)] 3 weeks apart. Serum assays were used to determine the extent of systemic drug exposure. Dose-normalized peak systemic serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum drug concentration-time curve (AUC) were used to quantify systemic exposure. A total of 26 mitoxantrone treatments were administered to 10 dogs. While there was no significant difference in Cmax, the AUC was significantly lower after IAC compared with IVGAC. Ten doxorubicin treatments were administered to 5 dogs. There were no significant differences in Cmax or AUC. A total of 14 carboplatin treatments were administered to 7 dogs. The Cmax was significantly lower for IAC compared to IVC, while the AUC values were equivocal. This study demonstrates certain lower serum values may be achieved after IAC delivery of carboplatin and mitoxantrone. These chemotherapy agents may have a preferred pharmacological profile for regional chemotherapy delivery in dogs with urogenital tumors.
Comparison of 3 blind brachial plexus block techniques during maintenance of anesthesia and postoperative pain scores in dogs undergoing surgical procedures of the thoracic limb
Alicia Skelding, Alexander Valverde, Rodrigo Aguilera, Noel M. Moens, Melissa Sinclair, Jeffrey J. Thomason (page 197)
The degree of analgesia provided by blind techniques for brachial plexus blocks (BPBs) has not been compared in clinical cases undergoing surgery of the thoracic limb. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic conditions and postoperative analgesia resulting from 3 different BPB local anesthetic techniques in canine patients undergoing such surgery. Twenty-four client-owned dogs received a standardized premedication/induction protocol (hydromorphone and acepromazine/propofol), maintained with isoflurane in oxygen using mechanical ventilation, in a prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial. Before surgery, dogs received 1 of 3 anatomical BPB techniques: traditional, perpendicular, or axillary, with 0.2 mL/kg body weight (BW) of bupivacaine 0.5%. Cardiorespiratory variables and isoflurane end-tidal concentrations were recorded throughout anesthesia. Scores for anesthetic maintenance (0–best to 4–responsive), recovery quality (0–not responsive to 3–responsive), and Glasgow pain scale were recorded for up to 24 h postoperatively. All dogs recovered uneventfully from anesthesia and no differences in the measured variables or scores were noted among groups, during and after anesthesia. When thoracic limb amputations in each of the 3 groups (n = 9; 4 in traditional, 3 in perpendicular, 2 in axillary) were compared to the other surgical procedures (n = 15); however, scores for anesthetic maintenance were higher [0 (0 to 1) versus 0 (0 to 0); median (interquartile range)], recovery [1 (0 to 2) versus 0 (0 to 0)], and pain [2.4 (2.4 to 3.0) versus 1.6 (1.4 to 2.2)] in the first 3 h post-extubation. Surgery times were also longer with amputations [115 min (100 to 138 min) versus 50 min (41 to 90 min)]. The 3 BPB techniques provided similar anesthesia and postoperative pain scores. Despite higher pain scores in thoracic limb amputations than in less invasive surgeries, the BPB appeared to provide significant comfort.
Effects of various dietary supplements on inflammatory processes in primary canine chondrocytes as a model of osteoarthritis
Eman A. AlRaddadi, Tanja Winter, Harold M. Aukema, Donald W. Miller (page 206)
The use of dietary supplements as an alternative treatment for joint-related pathologies such as osteoarthritis (OA) is increasing. However, there is little scientific evidence to support the intended use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of creatine- and amino acid-based supplements in primary cultured canine chondrocytes (CnCs) as an in-vitro model of OA and compare the effects to more commonly used agents, such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), carprofen, and the joint supplement, glucosamine (GS). CnCs were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the subsequent release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Changes in oxylipins were also assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). All compounds examined were able to significantly reduce the release of PGE2 and TNFα and were associated with reductions in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) phosphorylation. The creatine- and amino acids-based supplements also altered the profile of oxylipins produced. All compounds examined were less effective at reducing the release of PGE2 than carprofen. Carprofen significantly increased release of TNFα from CnCs, however, while the other agents reduced TNFα release. This study suggests that creatine- and amino acid-based supplements may have a beneficial role in preventing inflammation within the joint and that further studies are warranted.
Relationship between reproductive management practices and fertility in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows
István Fodor, György Gábor, Zsolt Lang, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, László Ózsvári (page 218)
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of reproductive management practices on fertility in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to identify the differences by parity. Data on reproductive performance and management of cows were gathered from 34 large commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy herds in Hungary. Individual data on 23 781 cows that calved in the studied herds in 2014 were collected from the national milk recording database and used to calculate the reproductive indices. Farm managers and veterinarians were interviewed in person from May 22 to November 6, 2015 using a questionnaire to collect information about reproductive management practices. The data were statistically analyzed by mixed-effects models. Our results showed that the use of a voluntary waiting period (VWP) was linked to a greater increase in calving-to-conception interval (CCI, P < 0.05) and a greater decline in the chance of pregnancy at 200 days in milk (P200, P < 0.001) in multiparous cows. Estrus synchronization was related to a larger reduction in days-to-first service (DFS, P < 0.001), breeding interval (IBI, P < 0.05), and CCI (P < 0.01) and a greater improvement in P200 (P < 0.001) in primiparous cows. Early pregnancy diagnosis and pregnancy recheck improved IBI (P < 0.01 for both practices), CCI (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively), and P200 (P < 0.001 for both practices) to a larger extent in primiparous than in multiparous cows. In conclusion, estrus synchronization, early pregnancy diagnosis, and pregnancy recheck led to a greater improvement in fertility in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows.
Feeding altrenogest during late lactation improves fertility of primiparous sows nursing smaller litters
Nutthee Am-in, Roy N. Kirkwood (page 228)
The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding altrenogest (AT) to primiparous sows with smaller litters during the last week of lactation would improve their fertility. At day 21 of a 28-day lactation, 40 primiparous sows nursing ≤ 8 pigs were assigned equally to 2 groups, either to be fed 20 mg per day of AT for the last 7 days of lactation or to serve as untreated controls. To detect estrus, sows had daily fence-line contact with a mature boar. At estrus detection, sows were subject to an ovarian examination with transrectal ultrasound and preovulatory follicles (≥ 0.6 mm) were counted. Sows were artificially inseminated at estrus detection and again 24 hours later. Compared to controls, the AT-fed sows had longer weaning-to-estrus intervals (WEIs; P < 0.001), more pre-ovulatory follicles (P < 0.001), and larger subsequent litter sizes (P = 0.03). Farrowing rates were unaffected by treatment. These data suggest that sows nursing small litters are more likely to initiate a follicular phase during lactation, but that feeding AT prevents this and increases ovulation rate and subsequent litter size.
Investigating the ability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from different sources to adhere to canine and human corneocytes
Nathita Phumthanakorn, Nuvee Prapasarakul (page 231)
Assays were done to assess the ability of 5 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) isolates from difference sources to adhere to canine and human corneocytes. Cell wall-associated (CWA) protein gene profiles were examined to look for associations with adherence. Five MRSP strains were studied: 3 with the same CWA protein gene profile (14 genes) and belonging to sequence type (ST) 45 were isolated from a dog, a human, and the environment. The other 2 were an environmental isolate belonging to ST433 that had the lowest number of CWA protein genes (12) and a canine clinical isolate belonging to ST733 that had the greatest number of CWA protein genes (18). The 3 isolates of MRSP ST45, a major clone in Thailand, had the greatest ability to adhere to canine and human corneocytes. Nevertheless, MRSP adherence ability could not be predicted from the profile of genes encoding CWA proteins.
Effects of 3 morphine doses, in combination with acepromazine, on sedation and some physiological parameters in dogs
Eduardo R. Monteiro, Thiago A. Rabello, Julia P.P. Rangel, Juarez S. Nunes Jr, Cesar D. Freire, Daniela Campagnol (page 235)
This study evaluated the effects of 3 morphine doses combined with acepromazine, on sedation and physiological parameters in 5 clinically healthy dogs. Four treatments were administered intramuscularly in a randomized, blinded, crossover design: acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg, alone (ACP) and acepromazine plus morphine at doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg body weight (BW) (AM0.25, AM0.5, and AM1.0, respectively). Sedation scores and cardiorespiratory variables were evaluated for 120 min after drug administration. The sedation scores were significantly higher with the AM0.25 and AM1.0 treatments than with the ACP treatment. At 30 min the scores were 36% to 66% higher with AM1.0 than with AM0.25 and AM0.5, respectively, but these differences were not significant. The physiological variables remained acceptable for dogs. The results of this study do not support the use of AM0.5 over AM0.25 to improve sedation in dogs, but they do indicate that sedation may be greater with AM1.0 than with AM0.25 and AM0.5. Studies with a greater number of samples are warranted to confirm this statement.