Table of Contents and AbstractsApril 2019, Vol. 83, No. 2
Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. from beef cows in western Canada and associations with herd attributes and antimicrobial use
Cheryl L. Waldner, Sheryl Gow, Sarah Parker, John R. Campbell (page 80)
The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. isolates in fecal samples from beef cow-calf herds and to examine the associations between herd management practices, reported antimicrobial use, and AMR. Baseline prevalence data are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship programs. A pooled fecal sample, representing 20 cows, was collected from each of 107 herds during pregnancy testing. In the 305 recovered E. coli isolates (maximum 3 per herd), resistance to ≥ 1 antimicrobial was identified in 12 isolates [4%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2% to 7%] from 105 herds (11%, 95% CI: 7% to 19%). The most common resistances identified in E. coli isolates were to tetracycline (3%) and to both streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (3%). Only 1 E. coli isolate was resistant to an antimicrobial of very high importance to human health — amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. However, 2 E. coli isolates had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to 1 antimicrobial was identified in 16 of 87 Campylobacter spp. isolates (18%, 95% CI: 11% to 28%) from 87 herds. Resistance to tetracycline was reported in 15% of Campylobacter spp. isolates and to nalidixic acid in 3.4%. Herds in which cows were treated with florfenicol were more likely to have E. coli resistance to ≥ 2 antimicrobials (OR 7.1, 95% CI: 1.1 to 57, P = 0.03). Herds with calf mortality of > 5% were more likely to have E. coli with resistance to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole [odds ratio (OR): 7.8, P = 0.03]. The results of this study are consistent with previous reports from western Canada and provide a starting point for designing an ongoing antimicrobial surveillance program.
Effect of passive transfer of immunity on growth performance of preweaned dairy calves
Ibrahim Elsohaby, Marguerite Cameron, Ahmed Elmoslemany, J. Trenton McClure, Greg Keefe (page 90)
The primary objective of this observational study was to examine the association between passive transfer of immunity and growth performance in preweaning calves. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of a heart girth tape (HGT) to estimate body weight (BW) in preweaning calves. A total of 142 Holstein calves were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected 24 to 48 hours after birth and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration for each calf was measured by radial immunodiffusion assay. Calf BW was determined at birth, at 21 days, and at weaning using an electronic scale (ES) and HGT. A significant positive association was detected between serum IgG and both BW at 21 days and average daily gain (ADG) from 0 to 21 days of life. Additionally, ADG from 0 to 42 days of life showed a trend toward an improved rate of gain as IgG concentration increased. The Pearson correlation coefficient between BW obtained from ES and HGT was 0.81 at birth, 0.86 at 21 days, and 0.83 at weaning. The mean differences between BW obtained from ES and HGT were −3.1 kg at birth, −3.2 kg at 21 days, and −7.7 kg at weaning. In conclusion, serum IgG concentration in neonatal calves is an important contributing factor for the variation in growth performance of preweaning calves. The HGT can be used to estimate the BW of preweaning calves but has a tendency to overestimate weight, especially at weaning compared to birth and 21 days of age.
Molecular characterization of a Korean porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain NB1
Hee-Chun Chung, Van Giap Nguyen, Thi My Le Huynh, Hyoung-Joon Moon, Bo-Kyu Kang, Sung-Jae Kim, Hye-Kwon Kim, Seong-Jun Park, Kun-Taek Park, Yong-Ho Park, Bong-Kyun Park (page 97)
In Korea, for the past 30 years (1987–present), porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been established as an endemic situation in which multiple genogroups of classical G1 and G2b, and the recently introduced pandemic G2a, coexisted. Because of the dynamic nature of the virus, continuous field monitoring for PEDV strains is required. This study is the first to reveal prevalence of PEDV in 9 sampling provinces, with an overall detection rate of 6.70%. Porcine endemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was present in pigs of all ages, especially in the non-PED vaccinated groups. The highest detection rate was in the finisher group (2.34%), followed by that in the newborn group (1.56%). Secondly, using Sanger sequencing, this study recovered a complete genome (28 005 nucleotides long) of NB1 strain from a farm severely affected by PED. Analyses of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that NB1 differed from 18 other Korean PEDV mostly in 4 protein coding genes: ORF1a, ORF1b, S, and N. Two amino acid substitutions (V635E and Y681Q) in the COE and S1D neutralizing epitopes of NB1 resulted in antigenic index alteration of the adjacent sites, one of which contributed to a mutation that escaped neutralizing antibodies.
Hypermutations in porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus
Jianguo Dong, Dan Rao, Yushan Ding, Yu Zhao, Guangqiang Zhang, Kaiwei Deng, Tao Liu, Fengchao Jiao, Jing Hu, Huanan Wang, Ning Zhang, Pandeng Zhao, Chaoliang Leng (page 104)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), has resulted in large economic losses for the swine industry. The virus has shown remarkable genetic diversity since its discovery. In our study, we investigated mutation types in the evolution of PRRSV for both in vivo and in vitro passaging of the virus. Sequence alignment analysis demonstrated that the most common hypermutations expressed were A→G/U→C and G→A/C→U. The data provide a new theoretical basis for PRRSV evolution.
A comparative study of the efficacy of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome subunit and a modified-live virus vaccine against respiratory diseases in endemic farms
Taehwan Oh, Hanjin Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Jiwoon Jeong, Siyeon Yang, Ikjae Kang, Su-Jin Park, Chanhee Chae (page 110)
The efficacy of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) subunit vaccine was evaluated and compared with a modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine under field conditions. Three farms were selected based on their history of respiratory diseases caused by co-infection with both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2. In each farm, 60 pigs were randomly allocated to 2 vaccinated and 1 unvaccinated groups (20 pigs per group). One group of pigs were administered the PRRS subunit vaccine at 21 and 42 days of age and another group administered the PRRS MLV vaccine at 21 days of age. The subunit vaccine had similar efficacy and, in some instances, performed even better than the MLV vaccine. Vaccination of pigs with either of the PRRS vaccines resulted in significantly improved growth performance in Farm B but not in Farm C. In Farm A, pigs vaccinated with the PRRS subunit vaccine had a better growth performance statistically compared to those vaccinated with the PRRS MLV vaccine. At the peak of PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 viremia, neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses against PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 were at low levels suggesting that either vaccine is only able to provide a partial protection against co-circulating PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2.
Epidemiology and molecular characterization of the antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Chinese mink infected by hemorrhagic pneumonia
Xue Bai, Siguo Liu, Jianjun Zhao, Yuening Cheng, Hailing Zhang, Bo Hu, Lei Zhang, Qiumei Shi, Zhiqiang Zhang, Tonglei Wu, Guoliang Luo, Shizhen Lian, Shujuan Xu, Jianke Wang, Wanjiang Zhang, Xijun Yan (page 122)
Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink is a fatal disease caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Very little is known about P. aeruginosa in relation to genotype and the mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance in mink. A total of 110 P. aeruginosa samples were collected from mink from Chinese mink farms between 2007 and 2015. Samples underwent molecular genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility and its mechanism were investigated at the molecular level. The PFGE identified 73 unique types and 15 clusters, while MLST identified 43 (7 new) sequence types (ST) and 12 sequence type clonal complexes (STCC). Sequence types and PFGE showed persistence of endemic clones in cities Wendeng (Shandong, China) and Dalian (Liaoning, China), even in different timelines. The MLST also revealed the gene correlation of the mink P. aeruginosa across different time and place. The ST1058 (n = 14), ST882 (n = 11), and ST2442 (n = 10) were the predominant types, among which ST1058 was the only one found both in Shandong province and Dalian (Liaoning, China). The MLST for P. aeruginosa infection in mink was highly associated with that in humans and other animals, implying possible transmission events. A small proportion of mink exhibited drug resistance to P. aeruginosa (9/69, 13%) with resistance predominantly to fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside, and β-lactamase. Eight strains had mutations in the quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDR). High proportions (65%; 72/110) of the fosA gene and 2 types of glpt deletion for fosmycin were detected. Furthermore, in the whole genome sequence of one multidrug resistant strain, we identified 27 genes that conferred resistance to 14 types of drugs.
Osteoarthritic pain model influences functional outcomes and spinal neuropeptidomics: A pilot study in female rats
Julie Anne Gervais,* Colombe Otis,* Bertrand Lussier, Martin Guillot, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Francis Beaudry, Eric Troncy (page 133)
Osteoarthritis, the leading cause of chronic joint pain, is studied through different animal models, but none of them is ideal in terms of reliability and translational value. In this pilot study of female rats, 3 surgical models of osteoarthritic pain, i.e., destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM), cranial cruciate ligament transection (CCLT), and the combination of both surgical models (COMBO) and 1 chemical model [intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)] were compared for their impact on functional pain outcomes [static weight-bearing (SWB) and punctate tactile paw withdrawal threshold (PWT)] and spinal neuropeptides [substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), bradykinin (BK), and somatostatin (SST)]. Six rats were assigned to each model group and a sham group. Both the chemical model (MIA) and surgical COMBO model induced functional alterations in SWB and PWT, with the changes being more persistent in the surgical combination group. Both models also produced an increase in levels of pro-nociceptive and anti-nociceptive neuropeptides at different timepoints. Pain comparison with the MIA model showed the advantage of a surgical model, especially the combination of the DMM and CCLT models, whereas each surgical model alone only led to temporary functional alterations and no change in neuropeptidomics.
A missense mutation in MYO7A is associated with bilateral deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the Doberman pinscher breed
Aubrey A. Webb, Alison L. Ruhe, Mark W. Neff (page 142)
Bilateral deafness with concurrent vestibular dysfunction was first reported in the Doberman pinscher in 1980. Here, we identify a coding mutation in the MYO7A gene that is perfectly associated with the disorder. The lack of visual deficits in affected dogs suggests that, like rodents but unlike humans, MYO7A is not required for retinal function. DNA testing of the mutation will enable dog breeders to manage the incidence of this genetic defect.
Use of a colorimetric assay to evaluate the proliferation of canine mammary tumor cells exposed to propofol
Martina Argano, Raffaella De Maria, Katrin Rodlsberger, Paolo Buracco, M. Paula Larenza Menzies (page 149)
Drugs applied on human cancer cells can influence the rate of cell proliferation. The present study investigates the use of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay to evaluate canine tumor cell proliferation after exposure to the injectable anesthetic, propofol. Primary (CIPp) and metastatic (CIPm) canine tubular adenocarcinoma cell lines were incubated with cell culture medium (control) or propofol (1, 5, and 10 µg/mL). The MTT assays were performed after 6 and 12 hours of exposure. Measurements of absorbance were obtained for each condition with a spectrophotometer and compared with controls using a 3-way analysis of variance (P < 0.05). An increased cell proliferation rate was observed in CIPp exposed to 5 and 10 µg/mL of propofol for 6 hours and 1, 5, and 10 µg/mL for 12 hours. No significant changes were observed in CIPm after 6 hours of exposure. All propofol concentrations decreased the cell proliferation rate in CIPm after 12 hours of exposure. The MTT assays showed that exposure of CIPp to propofol for 6 and 12 hours increased cell proliferation. A decrease in the CIPm proliferation rate was observed when propofol exposure lasted for 12 hours. Further studies are warranted to better understand the role of propofol on cancer cell proliferation.
Effect of full versus open-palm hand shielding on worker radiation dose during manual restraint for small animal radiography
Monique N. Mayer, Niels K. Koehncke, Narinder Sidhu, Trevor Gallagher, Cheryl L. Waldner (page 154)
Open-palm hand shields are used by veterinary workers during manual restraint for small animal radiography. The objective of this study was to measure the reduction in scatter and primary beam radiation dose to the hand provided by a full glove and an open-palm shield, using a cadaver dog to simulate restraint by 2 workers of an awake, cooperative patient undergoing thoracic and abdominal radiography. Dose was measured for 30 exposures for each condition, for a total of 795 exposures. The mean percentage decrease in scatter radiation dose was 99.9% for a full glove and 40% for an open-palm shield. The mean percentage decrease in primary beam radiation dose was 98.4% for a full glove. To optimize worker protection, fully enclosing gloves should be used during manual restraint for radiography, and body parts should never be placed in the primary beam, even when shielded.