Table of Contents and AbstractsJanuary 2021, Vol. 85, No. 1
Nasal bacterial microbiota during an outbreak of equine herpesvirus 1 at a farm in southern Ontario
Diego E. Gomez, Luis G. Arroyo, Brandon Lillie, J. Scott Weese (page 3)
The objective of this study was to investigate the nasal bacterial microbiota of healthy horses and horses infected with equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). The nasal bacterial microbiota of 10 horses infected with EHV-1 and 11 control horses from a farm experiencing an outbreak was characterized using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The nasal bacterial microbiota of healthy horses and EHV-1 horses was significantly different in community membership and structure. Horses shedding EHV-1 had lower bacterial richness (P = 0.002), evenness (P = 0.008), and diversity (P = 0.026) than healthy horses. Healthy horses had a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lower Proteobacteria than horses with EHV-1 (P < 0.05). This study provides the basis for generating hypotheses and investigations on the role of bacterial-viral interactions in the health and diseases of adult horses.
Description of the bacterial microbiota of anal sacs in healthy dogs
Camylle C Bergeron, Marcio C. Costa, Lucilene B. de Souza, Frédéric Sauvé (page 12)
The aim of the present study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota of anal sacs in healthy dogs using NGS. Swabs were used to sample the rectum and secretions from each anal sac in 15 healthy dogs. DNA was extracted from swabs and the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced with Illumina MiSeq. Overall, 14 different bacterial phyla were identified in the rectum and in both anal sacs, the 5 main ones being Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria. The rectum had higher microbial diversity and richness than the left and right anal sacs. Community membership and structure significantly differed between the rectum and both anal sacs, but not between the right and the left anal sacs. This study showed that the diversity and richness of the bacterial microbiota of the anal sacs in dogs is greater than what has been reported in previous studies with culture-based methods. In conclusion, the bacterial microbiota of the anal sacs in dogs varies between individuals and differs from the rectal bacterial microbiota.
Incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in diarrheic calves and its susceptibility profile to antimicrobials and Eugenia uniflora L.
Marcelo F.G. Boriollo, Bianca S. Moreira, Mateus C. Oliveira, Taiane O. Santos, Luciana R.A. Rufino, Nelma M.S. Oliveira (page 18)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in diarrheic newborn calves, as well as the resistance profile of this microorganism against antimicrobials routinely used in veterinary therapy. The antimicrobial profile of Eugenia uniflora against E. coli clinical isolates was also analyzed. Specimens from the recto-anal junction mucosa were investigated by using chromogenic medium and identification of E. coli was done using microbiological methods (Gram staining, indole test, methyl red test, Voges-Proskauer test, citrate test, urease test, and hydrogen sulfide test). The stx1 and stx2 genes corresponding to the STEC pathotype were evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction and electrophoresis. The susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents commonly used in veterinary therapeutic practice and the antimicrobial effect of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora L. leaves against E. coli clinical isolates were evaluated by disk diffusion and microdilution methods. Shiga toxin-positive E. coli was identified in 45% of diarrheic newborn calves (stx1 = 23.2%, stx2 = 4.0%, stx1 + stx2 = 18.2%). The frequency of stx-positive E. coli in the bacterial population was equal to 17.0% (168/990 clinical isolates): 97 (9.8%) stx1-positive E. coli, 12 (1.2%) stx2-positive E. coli, and 59 (6.0%) stx1 + stx2-positive E. coli isolates. All stx-positive E. coli analyzed showed resistance to multiple drugs, that is, from 4 to 10 antimicrobials per clinical isolate (streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol). Effective management measures should be implemented, including clinical and laboratory monitoring, in order to promote animal and worker health and welfare, prevent and control the spread of diseases, and ensure effective treatment of infectious diseases. The E. uniflora L. leaves showed inhibition of microbial growth based on the diameter of halos, ranging from 7.9 to 8.0 mm and 9.9 to 10.1 mm for concentrations of 50 and 150 mg/mL, respectively. This plant displayed bacteriostatic action and a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 mg/mL for all clinical isolates. Its clinical or synergistic effects with antimicrobial agents must be determined from clinical and preclinical trials.
Antimicrobial resistance and recovery of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli from chicken egg layer flocks in Canadian sentinel surveillance sites using 2 types of sample matrices
Agnes Agunos, Sheryl P. Gow, David F. Léger, Logan Flockhart, Danielle Daignault, Andrea Desruisseau, Erin Zabek, Frank Pollari, Richard J. Reid-Smith (page 27)
Eggs are important to the diet of Canadians. This product is one of the supply-managed commodities in Canada, but unlike other commodities, where food safety risks are extensively explored and reported, information on the prevalence of enteric organisms (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in layers in Canada are limited. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of select bacteria and the associated AMR patterns in layer flocks using 2 sample matrices. Farms were located within FoodNet Canada and the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance sentinel sites (SS). Fecal samples (Ontario: ONSS1a, ONSS1b) and environmental sponge swabs (British Columbia: BCSS2a) were collected. Salmonella prevalence was 29% and 8% in ONSS1a and ONSS1b, respectively, and 7% in BCSS2a. S. Kentucky and S. Livingstone were the most frequently isolated serovars and no S. Enteritidis was detected. Campylobacter was not detected in the BC sponge swabs but was isolated from 89% and 53% of Ontario fecal samples (ONSS1a and ONSS1b, respectively). Seven C. jejuni from Ontario were ciprofloxacin-resistant. Escherichia coli prevalence was high in both sample types (98%). Overall, tetracycline resistance among E. coli ranged from 26% to 69%. Resistance to ceftiofur (n = 2 isolates) and gentamicin (n = 2) was relatively low. There were diverse resistance patterns (excludes susceptible isolates) observed among E. coli in Ontario (10 patterns) and British Columbia (14 patterns). This study revealed that fecal samples are more informative for farm-level monitoring of pathogen and AMR prevalence. Without further validation, sponge swabs are limited in their utility for Campylobacter detection and thus, for public health surveillance.
Evaluation of metallothionein and Ki-67 expression in chronic cholangiohepatitis in cats
Divya Jose, Andrew L. Allen, Barry Blakley, Ahmad Al-Dissi (page 36)
Chronic cholangiohepatitis (CCH) is a common pathological condition in cats with a guarded prognosis and unknown etiology. Recently, in human medicine, there has been increased interest in enhancing liver defense mechanisms as an effective treatment strategy to control liver diseases that have a poor prognosis. Metallothionein (MT) is a ubiquitous protein, which has been widely researched for its role in liver defense through heavy metal detoxification, neutralization of reactive oxygen species, and liver regeneration. In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the role of MT in CCH and hepatocellular regeneration in 34 cats histologically diagnosed with this condition by assessing the correlation between hepatocellular MT and Ki-67 (marker for cellular proliferation) expression with histological parameters of CCH, such as inflammation, fibrosis, and bile duct proliferation. Statistical analysis was performed using the Spearman-rank correlation test. A significant positive correlation was observed between inflammation and the number of MT-positive hepatocytes (r = 0.36, P = 0.03) and MT labelling intensity (r = 0.37, P = 0.03). In 16 of 34 cases (47%) MT labelling intensity was noted to be pronounced towards the centrilobular zone and very weak or absent towards the portal zone. The results suggest that MT is induced in the liver during chronic inflammatory conditions, which could be speculated as a host defensive mechanism to protect the liver from inflammation-mediated liver injury. Therapeutic interventions utilizing MT, therefore, may have a positive effect on cats with chronic cholangiohepatitis.
Changes in serum protein electrophoresis profiles and acute phase proteins in calves with diarrhea
Kyoung-Seong Choi, Jin-Hee Kang, Hyung-Chul Cho, Do-Hyeon Yu, Jinho Park (page 45)
Calf diarrhea leads to substantial economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide due to medical treatment costs, retarded growth performance, and even death. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in serum protein profiles and acute phase proteins in calves with diarrhea and identify the association between these changes and diarrhea. A total of 185 Korean beef calves were used and divided into 3 groups by age: 1 to 10 days (n = 46), 11 to 20 days (n = 65), and 21 to 30 days (n = 74). Blood and fecal samples were collected from each calf. Serum concentrations of total protein, protein fractions (albumin, α1-globulin, α2-globulin, β-globulin, and γ-globulin), haptoglobin (Hp), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were analyzed. Compared to calves without diarrhea, calves with diarrhea had significantly lower albumin concentrations at 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days of age (P = 0.017 and P = 0.000, respectively) and significantly higher α1-globulin fractions at 21 to 30 days of age (P = 0.01). Interestingly, α2-globulin fractions were significantly higher in diarrheic calves in all age groups, whereas γ-globulin fractions were significantly lower in calves with diarrhea aged 1 to 10 days, compared with normal animals. In calves with diarrhea, the concentration of Hp was significantly higher, whereas SAA levels were not different between normal and diarrheic calves. In addition, a positive correlation was found between α2-globulin and Hp (P = 0.0004). Taken together, these results provide useful information about the use of serum protein profiles and Hp as prognostic and diagnostic markers for animal health status.
An initial genome-wide investigation of protein-losing enteropathy in Gordon setters: Exploratory observations
Elle K. Donnini, Muhammed Walugembe, Max F. Rothschild, Albert E. Jergens, Karin Allenspach (page 51)
The objective of this preliminary study was to identify genomic regions that may predispose Gordon setters from the United Kingdom to familial protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) at a young age. A total of 106 related Gordon setters was used, including 6 affected dogs from an affected litter, 6 case controls from the same litter, 10 related/affected dogs, and 84 related/unaffected dogs. Genomic DNA was collected from each Gordon setter and extracted from buccal mucosal swabs. Genotyping of affected and unaffected dogs was carried out using the Canine Illumina HD SNP array and data generated were analyzed with PLINK software, using fixation index (Fst) and runs of homozygosity (ROH) methods. Pairwise Fst analyses between the affected and unaffected Gordon setter dogs identified various regions of differentiation on chromosomes 10, 18, 21, and 23 that contained several important genes. These regions revealed 5 candidate genes, including RARB, TTC7A, SOCS5, PIGF, and RHOD, that are associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and could potentially be associated with PLE in Gordon setters. Run of homozygosity (ROH) analyses revealed additional unique regions on chromosomes 15 and 17. These regions contained genes SYT1, UCN, and FNDC that could also be potential candidates for PLE in Gordon setters. The biological functions of the identified genes provided initial insights into the pathophysiology of PLE. Further large-scale studies are warranted to investigate the possible causality of these genomic regions and any possible genetic markers that could be used in predicting susceptibility to PLE syndrome.
Treatment of naturally occurring asthma with inhaled fluticasone or oral prednisolone: A randomized pilot trial
Michael Verschoor-Kirss, Elizabeth A. Rozanski, Claire R. Sharp, Trisha J. Oura, Ashley Egan, Perry Bain, Joyce Knoll (page 61)
The objective of this study was to compare inhaled glucocorticoids with oral glucocorticoids for treatment of naturally occurring feline asthma. Secondary goals were to evaluate serum allergy testing results in cats and to quantify the effect of an inhaled glucocorticoid (fluticasone) on glucose homeostasis. Nine cats with asthma were enrolled on the basis of clinical signs, thoracic radiographic findings, and airway eosinophilia. Cats were randomized and 4 cats were treated with oral glucocorticoids and 5 cats with inhaled glucocorticoids, with a 7-day course of oral glucocorticoids overlapping at the start of therapy. Cats were evaluated at baseline and at 8 wk with thoracic radiographs, bronchoalveolar lavage, lung function testing, and fructosamine levels. Serum allergen panels were evaluated. All cats were clinically normal after treatment and had significantly improved airway eosinophilia and decreased nucleated cell count. No improvement was seen in radiographic changes after treatment with either therapy. Oral, but not inhaled glucocorticoids, caused a decrease in airway resistance, although cats in the inhaled group had a higher baseline resistance than those in the oral group. Fructosamine levels did not change with treatment. Fifty percent of cats tested positive for immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Asthma is a heterogeneous condition; individual cats responded well to both oral and inhaled glucocorticoids. Ongoing evaluation of the potential underlying causes and therapeutic options is warranted with a larger group of cats.
Analysis of gene expression of prostaglandin EP4 receptor in canine osteosarcoma
Margaret L. Musser, Austin K. Viall, Rachel L. Phillips, Jesse M. Hostetter, Chad M. Johannes (page 68)
In many human cancers, the expression of the prostaglandin receptor EP4 (EP4R) is associated with the development of malignancy and a poor prognosis. The expression of EP4R has not yet been evaluated in canine tumors. The objective of this study was to characterize the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of EP4R in canine osteosarcoma (OSA). Gene expression of EP4R was evaluated using RNA in-situ hybridization (RNAscope). In all canine OSA samples evaluated, strong universal positive expression of EP4R was identified. Gene expression was significantly higher in OSA tissue samples than in normal nasal turbinate bone, possibly implicating EP4R in the pathogenesis of canine OSA.
Changes in mRNA of immune factors expressed by milk somatic cells of Holstein cows with hypocalcemia after calving
Hiromichi Ohtsuka, Misa Ohsawa, Kenji Murakami, Ryo Murata, Toshihide Kato, Motoshi Tajima (page 72)
Changes in immune factors expressed by milk somatic cells from Holstein cows with hypocalcemia after calving were investigated in this study. Fourteen multiparous Holstein cows after their 3rd or 4th calving in one farm were used. The cows were divided into 2 groups: 7 cows needing treatment due to onset of hypocalcemia (hypocalcemia group; age = 5.53 ± 0.27 years, parity = 3.14 ± 0.14) and 7 cows without health problems (control group; age = 5.88 ± 0.31 years, parity = 3.57 ± 0.26). Milk samples were collected aseptically using a cannula and mRNA of immune factors expressed by milk somatic cells were analyzed. Milk samples (50 mL) were collected from the right rear mammary gland of cows before milking at day 1 and weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 after calving. All milk samples showed a negative reaction to the California Mastitis Test. Levels of relative interleukin (IL)-6 and cathelicidin in the hypocalcemia group were lower than those in the control group in weeks 1 to 8. A significant difference in relative IL-6 levels was found in week 4 (P < 0.05). These results suggest that levels of IL-6 expressed by milk somatic cells may be affected by hypocalcemia in dairy cows.
Experimental evaluation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin against a Korean M. hyopneumoniae challenge
SooHwan Kim, Taehwan Oh, Siyeon Yang, Hyejean Cho, Chanhee Chae (page 77)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin against a Korean M. hyopneumoniae challenge under experimental conditions. Fifteen pigs were allocated randomly into 3 groups (5 pigs per group) that were designated in 1 of 3 ways: vaccinated-challenged, unvaccinated-challenged, or unvaccinated-unchallenged. The pigs in the vaccinated-challenged group were immunized with an M. hyopneumoniae whole-cell bacterin at a 1.0 mL dose-level at 21 d old. At 42 d old (0 d post-challenge), the pigs in the vaccinated-challenged and unvaccinated-challenged groups were inoculated intranasally with a strain of Korean M. hyopneumoniae. Vaccinated-challenged pigs elicited a strong cell-mediated immunity as measured by M. hyopneumoniae-specific interferon-γ secreting cells when compared with unvaccinated-challenged pigs. Vaccination of pigs with this new M. hyopneumoniae bacterin reduced nasal shedding and lung lesions. The evaluated vaccine was therefore considered effective in controlling M. hyopneumoniae infection.