Table of Contents and AbstractsMarch 2018, Vol. 59, No. 3


Case Reports

Suspected congenital urethral diverticulum in a dog

Aylin Atilla (page 243)

A 2-year-old neutered male dog with a history of urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, and unilateral cryptorchidism was presented with an acute onset of perineal swelling. Urinary contrast studies revealed a urothelial lined structure in the perineum. Surgical resection of 80% to 90% of this structure, suspected to be a congenital urethral diverticulum, was successful.

Catastrophic gastric rupture in a horse secondary to psyllium pharmacobezoars

Thomas C. Bergstrom, R. Russell Sakai, Jorge E. Nieto (page 249)

A mare was euthanized because of gastric rupture secondary to complete duodenal obstruction by 2 bezoars located in the pylorus and proximal duodenum. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the bezoars were composed of psyllium. The mare had been receiving treatment with a pelleted psyllium product at 4 times the recommended dosage. Veterinarians should be aware that treatment of colic in horses with pelleted psyllium products could be associated with gastric impaction.


Case-control study of mineral concentrations of hoof horn tissue derived from feedlot cattle with toe tip necrosis syndrome (toe necrosis)

Murray Jelinski, Cheryl Waldner, Gregory Penner (page 254)

This study determined whether mineral concentrations in the hooves of cattle with toe tip necrosis syndrome (cases) differed from those of cattle dying of all other causes (controls). Samples were collected over a 2-year period from 16 different feedlots and analyzed for 8 minerals [cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn)]. Mineral concentrations in the hoof wall and solar horn of the same hoof were poorly correlated; Se was the most correlated (ρ = 0.865; P < 0.001), while Mg (ρ = 0.465; P < 0.001) and Zn (ρ = 0.157; P = 0.053) were the least correlated. The cases had significantly lower Mg concentrations in both the hoof wall and solar horn tissue compared to the control subjects. For every 10 ppm decrease in Mg, the odds of a diagnosis of toe tip necrosis syndrome (TTNS) increased by 1.13 times for the hoof wall (P = 0.002) and 1.21 times for solar horn (P < 0.001).

Evaluation of post-operative pain after active desufflation at completion of laparoscopy in mares undergoing ovariectomy

Ian F. Devick, Britta S. Leise, Sangeeta Rao, Dean A. Hendrickson (page 261)

The cause of transient post-operative pain in a subset of horses undergoing laparoscopy is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate if residual pneumoperitoneum is associated with transient post-operative pain in mares undergoing ovariectomy. Thirty-eight mares undergoing routine standing laparoscopic ovariectomy were randomly allocated into 2 groups. At the completion of laparoscopy, either the abdominal cavity was actively desufflated or the cannulas were opened to achieve ambient pressure before incisional closure. Assessments were performed for 18 hours after surgery using a validated visceral/somatic pain scale for horses. Overall, pain was minimal in both groups (median score 2/39) post-surgery. Active desufflation of the pneumoperitoneum at the completion of laparoscopy approached statistical significance (P = 0.07) in decreasing pain at 12 hours after laparoscopy. However, effects of active desuffation were not significant throughout the monitored 18-hour post-surgery period. We conclude that the decision to actively desufflate at the completion of laparoscopy should be based on surgeon's preference.

The distribution of animal antimicrobials in British Columbia for over-the-counter and veterinary sales, 2012 to 2014

Brian R. Radke (page 267)

Canadian Animal Health Institute (CAHI) data are used for provincial, national, and international comparisons of Canadian animal antimicrobial use. The objectives of this paper were to: i) use CAHI and British Columbia (BC) antimicrobial distribution data to group BC antimicrobial sales into the following BC retail distribution channels: over-the-counter retail outlets, livestock and poultry feed mills, aquaculture feed mills, livestock and poultry veterinarians, and companion animal veterinarians; and ii) to validate the CAHI BC distribution data and BC's antimicrobial distribution data from 2012 to 2014. Annual total antimicrobial distribution and distribution by antimicrobial class were presented for each distribution channel. The distribution of medically important antimicrobials for production animals was validated, the distribution of ionophores was not. A lack of data precluded any attempt to validate the distribution of antimicrobials for companion animals. Each distribution channel typically experienced substantial fluctuations in total antimicrobial use and use by antibiotic class at least once over the 3-year period. The validated data are useful for evidence-based analysis of a proposed Canadian policy requiring a veterinary prescription for all medically important antimicrobials.

Short- and long-term outcomes after shoulder excision arthroplasty in 7 small breed dogs

Xavier Montasell, Jacques Dupuis, Louis Huneault, Guillaume R. Ragetly (page 277)

This study reports short- and long-term clinical outcomes following excision arthroplasty in 7 small breed dogs with shoulder pathology. Lameness and pain were scored before surgery, and reassessed at short- and long-term follow-ups with measurements of range of motion (ROM), scapulo-humeral angles of extension (EA) and flexion (FA), and muscle girth (MG) of the operated and contralateral limbs. All dogs improved clinically for lameness and pain. Range of motion, EA, and FA of the operated limb were not significantly different compared with the contralateral limb at short-term follow-up, but ROM and EA were significantly decreased at long-term examination. Muscle girth was not significantly different than the contralateral limb. Radiographic re-evaluations showed bony proliferation around osteotomies without interosseous union in most dogs and all owners were satisfied with the surgery outcome. Excision arthroplasty seems to be an effective treatment for chronic shoulder pathologies in small dogs. Range of motion and EA were decreased and a mild lameness remained present at long-term follow-up.

Characteristics of parasitic egg shedding over a 1-year period in foals and their dams in 2 farms in central Saskatchewan

Elzbieta Misuno, Chris R. Clark, Stacy L. Anderson, Emily Jenkins, Brent Wagner, Katarzyna Dembek, Lyall Petrie (page 284)

The goals of this study were to report the seasonal shedding patterns of strongyle and Parascaris spp. eggs in repeated fecal samples for mares (n = 38) and foals (n = 39), and to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin treatment in mares from 2 selected horse breeding farms in central Saskatchewan. Median strongyle fecal egg counts (FEC) peaked in July and August in adult horses. The farms differed significantly (P = 0.0005) in regard to strongyle shedding categories (< 200; 200 to 500; and > 500 eggs/g) over time, but for each individual horse (both farms combined) these categories did not differ over time (P = 0.13) on samples collected in grazing season. When evaluating 3 samples collected fall, summer and fall in 2 consecutive grazing seasons, 94% of horses that shed < 200 eggs/g on 2 initial samples, remained in the same category on the third sample. Mares on each farm didn't differ statistically in shedding categories when comparing September samples from 2 consecutive years (Farm A: P = 0.56, Farm B: P = 0.06). Peak strongyle shedding occurred late fall in the first year of life for foals on Farm A, and in July in the second year of life for foals on Farm B. Parascaris spp. FEC were greatest in foals ≤ 6 months of age, with peak observed when foals were 5 to 6 months old. Ivermectin was 100% effective at reducing strongyle FEC 2 weeks after treatment in adult horses. Horses in Saskatchewan had relatively high strongyle shedding levels, which were significantly different between the farms, and high prevalence of Oxyuris equi. Strongyle shedding consistency was observed for FECs collected from mares in grazing season (July to September).

Review Articles

Toward a harmonized approach to animal welfare law in Canada

David Fraser, Katherine E. Koralesky, Geoff Urton (page 293)

Animal protection law in Canada varies across the country. Federal animal protection law exists in the Criminal Code, in regulations for the transport of animals, and in regulations for humane handling and slaughter at abattoirs that are inspected by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Provincial animal protection laws often include provisions that i) describe a duty of care toward animals; ii) prohibit causing or permitting animal "distress;" iii) specify exemptions from prosecution; and iv) reference various national and other standards. Inconsistencies lead to duplication of effort, create difficulty in working across jurisdictions, and may erode public trust. A more consistent approach might be achieved by i) referencing a common suite of standards in provincial statutes; ii) citing the federal transport and humane slaughter regulations in provincial regulations; iii) establishing agreements so provincial authorities may enforce federal regulations; iv) wider and more uniform adoption of enforcement tools that require people to take immediate action to protect animal welfare; v) developing new standards; and vi) national consultation to define frequently used terms.

Student Paper

Concomitant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Mycoplasma haemofelis in a barn cat

Alejandra Ceballos-Vasquez (page 307)

A 5-year-old male barn cat was presented with lethargy and excessive bleeding following castration. The patient developed hemolytic anemia and diagnostic tests revealed infection with feline immunodeficiency virus and Mycoplasma haemofelis. This case serves as a reminder of the importance of testing for infectious diseases and educating owners on feline infectious disease prevention and management.


(page 229)



Veterinary School Admission — A comment
Marie Holowaychuk (page 217)

Transportation of horses to Japan for slaughter — A comment
Jaspinder Komal (page 217)

Transportation of horses to Japan for slaughter — A reply
Maureen Harper (page 218)


CVMA: 70 and going strong
Troye McPherson (page 221)


(page 223)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 233)


Veterinary care across Canada: Average provincial fees in 2017
Chris Doherty (page 303)


Atopic dermatitis in cats
Jangi Bajwa (page 311)


Change is needed to correct the lack of veterinary dental education at the undergraduate level
David J. Kerr (page 314)


Stephanie Osinchuk, Bruce Grahn (page 315)



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