CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsJune 2019, Vol. 60, No. 6


Case Reports

Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a 5-month-old Bernese mountain dog

Meike Hammer, Jean-Guillaume Grand (page 587)

A 5-month-old Bernese mountain dog was presented for unproductive vomitus and abdominal distension. A gastric dilatation and volvulus was diagnosed. The dog underwent gastric derotation and incisional gastropexy. No intra- or post-operative complications occurred. Eight months following surgery, the dog was in excellent physical condition with no recurrence of clinical episodes of gastric dilatation. To the authors’ knowledge, gastric dilatation and volvulus has not been previously reported in a puppy. This report underlines the importance of considering a prophylactic gastropexy in juvenile dogs with a known breed predisposition for gastric dilatation and volvulus.

Clinical hypocalcemia following surgical resection of apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas in 3 dogs

Jaime A. Olsen, Julia P. Sumner (page 591)

Three canine patients were presented with marked hypercalcemia secondary to an apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASCA). Two of the patients underwent treatment for hypercalcemia before surgical resection of their tumors, including diuresis and the administration of bisphosphonates. All dogs developed clinically symptomatic hypocalcemia 2 to 4 days following surgery. Clinical signs included facial rubbing, muscle fasciculations, lameness, and collapse. The dogs each required calcium supplementation and close monitoring of serum ionized calcium, as inpatients and continuing after discharge. Hypocalcemia and associated clinical signs resolved with treatment in all cases.


Comparison of acetate tape impression, deep skin scraping, and microscopic examination of hair for therapeutic monitoring of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis: A pilot study

Oscar F. Barillas, Jangi Bajwa, Jacques Guillot, AJM Arcique (page 596)

The standard method for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of dogs with demodicosis is microscopic examination of deep skin scrapings. Previous studies have compared deep skin scraping and microscopic hair examination to acetate tape impression with skin squeezing for the diagnosis of demodicosis but the latter has never been evaluated for therapeutic monitoring. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate acetate tape impression with skin squeezing as a therapeutic monitoring tool for dogs with juvenile onset generalized demodicosis. An area of skin with primary lesions for demodicosis was chosen and the 3 techniques were performed. The total number of mites including each of the Demodex canis life stages were recorded. This was done weekly until negative results were obtained. There were no significant differences in the total number of mites in the weekly counts between the deep skin scrapings and the acetate tape impressions with skin squeezing. Acetate tape impression with skin squeezing can be used for therapeutic monitoring of dogs with juvenile onset generalized demodicosis.

Modified balloon-catheter-assisted closed anal sacculectomy in the dog: Description of surgical technique

Devon Diaz, Sarah Boston, Adam Ogilvie, Ameet Singh, Owen Skinner (page 601)

The aim of this report is to describe a modified Foley catheter technique for anal sacculectomy. A standard approach used for a closed anal sacculectomy was performed. The duct of the anal sac was then freed from the surrounding tissues and ligated. The duct was transected lateral to the ligature and a purse string suture placed. The anal sac balloon catheter was inserted through the duct into the anal sac and the purse string was tightened. Once inflated, the catheter was then used as a handle to facilitate manipulation and dissection of the anal sac from surrounding tissues. This technique permits circumferential dissection of the anal sac with good visualization, accuracy, and control, especially at the medial portion of the anal sac adjacent to the rectum. This technique can be considered for application to cases of chronic anal sacculitis and small anal gland adenocarcinomas.

Heartworm infection in domestic dogs in Canada, 1977–2016: Prevalence, time trend, and efficacy of prophylaxis

Erin McGill, Olaf Berke, J. Scott Weese, Andrew Peregrine (page 605)

Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a mosquito-borne parasite that primarily infects domestic and wild canids. The objectives of this study were to i) determine if there has been a temporal change in prevalence of heartworm infection among domestic dogs in Canada from 1977 to 2016; ii) explore the spatial extension of heartworm across Canada using choropleth maps; and iii) assess the efficacy of preventive drugs using the estimated “Attributable Fraction Exposed.” Heartworm surveys that collected data from 1977 to 2010 and serological laboratory data from 2007 to 2016 were analyzed. The data depicted a decrease in heartworm prevalence, both nationally and provincially, from 1977 to the early 2000s. However, an increase in prevalence was identified for tested dog populations in Manitoba and Quebec from 2007 to 2016. Chemoprophylaxis was associated with an estimated 93.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 92.85, 93.3] reduction of heartworm infections in domestic dogs in Canada from 1977 to 2010.

Endoparasite control practices on Saskatchewan dairy farms

Haley Scott, Murray Jelinski, Chris Luby, Fabienne Uehlinger (page 613)

A questionnaire was administered to dairy producers in Saskatchewan in 2016 to determine basic pasture management practices, how producers use parasite control products, and attitudes towards the threat of endoparasites. All 161 dairy producers in Saskatchewan were invited to participate and the survey response rate was 39.8% (64/161). Most respondents (78.3%) were not concerned with endoparasites in their cattle or the threat of anthelmintic resistance. Yet 79.7% of producers reported using anthelmintics in all classes of cattle (lactating cows, dry cows, weaned heifers, and bred heifers). The most common reasons for using an anthelmintic product were as part of a routine management strategy and for the control of external parasites. The most common method to determine dosage was by visual estimation of the animal’s weight. Together, these factors may increase the risk for development of anthelmintic resistance.

Efficiency of ultrasound-guided aspiration of medial retropharyngeal lymph node in dogs

Changseok Kim, Michelle L. Oblak, Stephanie Nykamp (page 619)

The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to assess the diagnostic yield of ultrasound-guided aspiration of the medial retropharyngeal lymph node (MRPLN) and to report factors on computed tomography (CT) evaluation that are predictive of obtaining a diagnostic sample. A secondary objective was to report CT size reference ranges for cytologically confirmed normal MRPLNs in dogs. Medical records and CT images of 69 dogs were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic yield of ultrasound-guided aspiration on MRPLNs was 47.5%. Six lymph nodes were positive for metastasis with various cancers. Only rostral height was predictive of the diagnostic yield. The Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman’s Rho tests suggested that the age of the dog has significant negative linear correlation with the size of MRPLNs while the weight has positive correlation. Overall, ultrasound-guided aspiration of MRPLN has low diagnostic yield in normal size lymph nodes. Prior case selection based on CT evaluation may increase the probability of diagnostic samples.

Do plasma protein:fibrinogen ratios in horses provide additional information compared with fibrinogen concentration alone?

Nicole J. Fernandez, Marie-France Roy (page 625)

The plasma protein:fibrinogen (PP:F) ratio was introduced to aid interpretation of hyperfibrinogenemia by accounting for dehydration. However, this ratio is inconsistently assessed in practice and its clinical value remains unknown. Our objective was to determine whether the PP:F ratio provides additional information in adult horses beyond fibrinogen concentration alone. Two databases were reviewed to identify 412 hyperfibrinogenemic horses. Plasma protein:fibrinogen ratios were calculated and their interpretation compared to the fibrinogen concentration. Ratios < 15 were supportive of inflammation. Albumin and total protein concentrations were evaluated when ratios were ≥ 15 to determine if inflammation was supported. Very good agreement (86%) was found on the presence of inflammation when PP:F ratios were compared to fibrinogen concentration. In 72% of cases in which PP:F ratios did not support inflammation, inflammation was considered likely based on albumin and total protein. These findings suggest that PP:F ratios do not provide additional information in horses over fibrinogen concentrations alone.

Diagnostic imaging characteristics of canine infectious sacroiliitis

Robert Slater, Alex zur Linden, Fiona James (page 630)

Infectious sacroiliitis has not been described in dogs. This retrospective case series describes the presentation, diagnostic imaging characteristics, and outcomes of 2 canine patients with infectious sacroiliitis. Selection criteria included presentation with back pain from 2010 to 2017, diagnostic imaging of the sacroiliac joints, and short- and long-term response to antibiotic therapy. Medical records, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed by a Board-certified veterinary radiologist, a neurologist, and a small animal intern. Two dogs met the inclusion criteria. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed unilaterally wide and irregular sacroiliac joint spaces, with juxta-articular soft tissue contrast enhancement and bone marrow edema. One patient had a communicating abscess of the psoas muscle, which cultured positive for Pasteurella canis. Following treatment with pain relief medications and antibiotics, both patients made a complete clinical recovery, with no signs of lameness 2 to 4 weeks after cessation of treatment, and no lameness reported by the owner afterwards. Infectious sacroiliitis should be considered when dogs are presented with lumbosacral pain.

Comparison of the glucose and insulin responses of horses to 2 formulations of corn syrup

Kira Moser, Heidi Banse (page 637)

The objectives of this study were to compare the insulin and glucose responses of horses to 2 formulations of corn syrup, [Karo Light (Karo) available in the United States, and Crown Lily White (Crown), available in Canada]. Horses were evaluated under both fed (n = 14) and fasted (n = 10) conditions. Using a randomized crossover design, each horse underwent an oral sugar test using Karo or Crown syrup. There were no significant differences in insulin or glucose time of maximum concentration (Tmax), maximum concentration (Cmax), or area under the curve (AUC) or in insulin or glucose concentrations at individual timepoints during fed or fasted conditions. Bland-Altman analysis of insulin at 75 minutes indicated a mean bias of 28.7 pmol/L, with 95% limits of agreement from −83.9 to 140.6 pmol/L (fed) and a mean bias of 11.5 pmol/L, with 95% limits of agreement from −78.9 to 101.9 pmol/L (fasted). These findings suggest that Karo and Crown syrup produce similar glucose and insulin responses in horses.

Determinants of pet food purchasing decisions

Molly Schleicher, Sean B. Cash, Lisa M. Freeman (page 644)

The objective of this study was to identify determinants of pet food purchasing decisions. An online survey was administered via e-mail, newsletters, and social media. A total of 2181 pet owners completed the survey: 1209 dog owners and 972 cat owners; 26% of respondents were animal professionals. Pet food characteristics ranked the highest were health and nutrition, quality, ingredients, and freshness. The veterinary healthcare team was reported to be the primary (43.6%) and most important source of nutrition information for pet owners; Internet sources were the primary information source for 24.6% of respondents. Most pet owners reported giving equal (53.1%) or more priority (43.6%) to buying healthy food for their pets compared with themselves. Results suggest that pet owners face numerous challenges in determining the best diet to feed their pets.

Student Paper

Richter’s hernia in a 3-month-old colt — A rare event

Amanda Avison (page 651)

Umbilical hernias are among the most common congenital defects in horses. Complications of umbilical hernias are uncommon, and Richter’s hernias are rare. This report describes a case of Richter’s hernia in a 3-month-old colt that was presented with signs of acute colic. The foal underwent a herniorrhaphy with intestinal resection and anastomosis.


(page 573)



Registered Veterinary Nurse?
Carlton Gyles (page 563)


(page 571)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 575)


One veterinarian’s experience with owners who are feeding raw meat to their pets
Lea Stogdale (page 655)


Time-sensitive communication
Myrna Milani (page 659)


Bovine Surgery and Lameness, 3rd edition
Anne Rogers (page 604)



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(page 662)