CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsMay 2021, Vol. 62, No. 5



Choosing which metrics to use when reporting antimicrobial use information to veterinarians in the Canadian swine industry

Angelina L. Bosman, Anne E. Deckert, Carolee A. Carson, Richard J. Reid-Smith, Zvonimir Poljak, Scott A. McEwen (page 453)

The objective of this study was to evaluate preferences for various metrics and denominators among Canadian swine veterinarians, in order to improve reporting of antimicrobial use (AMU) information to these stakeholders and to facilitate enhanced stewardship decisions. An online survey was made available to swine veterinarians across Canada; 12 responses (estimated response rate 17.6%) were submitted and analyzed. Responses represented veterinarians from every major pig-producing province and from a range of year of graduation from veterinary college. Participants self-evaluated their understanding of dose-based metrics as higher than weight- and frequency-based metrics and interpreted most results of AMU analyses correctly. Participants preferred dose-based metrics over others, and had various objectives for AMU information, including improving AMU on their clients’ farms and enabling comparisons with other farms. The results are useful to those making decisions about which AMU metrics to use in reports targeted to swine veterinarians.

Comparison of classic and needle arthroscopy to diagnose canine medial shoulder instability: 31 cases

Dirsko J.F. von Pfeil, Sara Megliola, Christopher Horstman, Desmond Tan, Mathieu Glassman (page 461)

This retrospective study compared surgery time, anesthesia time, and costs recorded with classic arthroscopy or needle arthroscopy when diagnosing canine medial shoulder instability. Signalment, examination findings, diagnostics, anesthesia time, surgery time, treatment, invoices, and complications were reported. All cases (classic arthroscopy, 14 cases; needle arthroscopy, 17 cases) were diagnosed with medial shoulder instability. Anesthesia times, surgery times, and invoices were statistically compared for classic and needle arthroscopy (P < 0.05). No significant differences were reported for surgery time (P = 0.13) but existed for anesthesia time (35 minutes shorter with needle arthroscopy; P < 0.0001) and invoice (38% lower with needle arthroscopy; P < 0.0001). No complications were recorded by the time of last direct follow-up, which was at a mean of 12.4 weeks after surgery. Needle arthroscopy offers an alternative, safe technique to reliably diagnose canine medial shoulder instability. Shorter anesthesia times and lower costs to the client may be advantages of needle over classic arthroscopy.

Surveillance of West Nile virus in horses in Canada: A retrospective study of cases reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency from 2003 to 2019

Antoine Levasseur, Julie Arsenault, Julie Paré (page 469)

The objectives of the study were to describe the regional and provincial incidence rates and the weekly distribution of 842 reported West Nile virus (WNV) cases in horses in Canada between 2003 and 2019. This study also investigated characteristics of cases reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) between 2015 and 2019. The western region (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) had higher incidence rates than the eastern region (Ontario, Quebec, and Atlantic provinces) and overall, Saskatchewan registered the highest incidence. Over the study period, an earlier weekly preliminary onset of WNV cases was observed in the western region. The vast majority of cases were unvaccinated (96%), most cases were Quarter Horses (68%) and the risk of mortality was 31.9%. The findings of this study may be useful in informing veterinary equine practitioners about measures to prevent WNV disease in horses in Canada.

Defining important canine zoonotic pathogens within the Prairie Provinces of Canada

Erica Sims, Tasha Epp (page 477)

The goal of this study was to establish a short list of zoonotic pathogens involving the domestic dog that can be prioritized for a companion animal surveillance program specific to the Prairie Provinces of Canada. A list of pathogens documented in dogs was created through a comprehensive review of infectious disease textbooks for the following taxonomical categories: bacteria, ectoparasites, fungi, helminths, protozoa, rickettsia, and viruses. This created an initial list of 594 pathogens that was then pared down through an extensive review of the literature using the following criteria: i) the pathogen is zoonotic/sapronotic/anthroponotic; ii) the dog is involved in transmission to humans, maintenance, or detection of the pathogen; and iii) there is a level of risk for occurrence of the pathogen in Canada. This process yielded a final list of 84 pathogens and 3 supplementary lists of canine zoonotic/sapronotic/anthroponotic pathogens that may become relevant to future surveillance programs.

Companion animal preventive care at a veterinary teaching hospital — Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of clients

Michelle Evason, Melissa McGrath, Jason Stull (page 484)

Preventive care is the cornerstone of health. However, veterinary staff to client (pet owner) communication of disease prevention may be limited resulting in increased pet risk. Our objectives were to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of clients regarding vaccination and parasite control and describe information sources influencing client preventive care. Over a 6-week period, clients visiting a veterinary teaching hospital in Prince Edward Island, Canada, were invited to complete a written questionnaire. Of those invited, 81% (105/129) completed the questionnaire. Respondents reported low (19 to 33%) to moderate (66 to 79%) coverage for canine “lifestyle” and core vaccines, respectively. Half of the participants reported that they had concern for their pet’s health from endo/ectoparasites compared to concern for their/household member’s health (27%), despite 45% reporting a person at increased zoonotic risk in their household. Veterinarians (89 to 92%) and online information (39 to 51%) were the highest client-reported resources for vaccine and parasite education. Our work provides a baseline for preventive care practices and highlights a need for improvement.

Behavioral evaluation of 65 aggressive dogs following a reported bite event

Diane Frank, Suzanne Lecomte, Guy Beauchamp (page 491)

Peer-reviewed scientific publications on the topic of dog bites are numerous. Montreal was one of the first municipalities in the province of Quebec to require mandatory assessment of aggressive dogs by veterinarians. In 2019, dogs reported as aggressive and considered a potential risk to public safety by city officials were scheduled for a mandatory behavioral assessment by a veterinarian. For the purpose of this study, only aggressive dogs that had bitten (N = 65) were included. The goals were to better describe the aggressive behavior of these dogs (behavioral sequence, type of aggression, and overall reactivity) and perhaps identify new possible risk factors related to severity of injury and dangerousness. The number of signs of increased arousal/reactivity was positively and significantly associated with the injury severity score. Dangerousness increased with size of dogs. Entire males were most dangerous despite absence of recognizable differences in body weight between neutered and unneutered males.

Case Reports

Transoral approach for mandibular and sublingual sialoadenectomy in a cat

Melania Dallago, Paolo Buracco (page 497)

Sialocele is an uncommon condition in cats. The treatment of choice for sublingual sialocele is excision of the ipsilateral mandibular and sublingual salivary gland/duct complex. Lateral and ventral cervical approaches have been described for mandibular-sublingual sialoadenectomy; however, the transoral approach, described here, has never been reported in cats. Ranula in the present case was likely caused by an inadvertent trauma of the sublingual duct during resection of a sublingual lesion performed by the referring veterinarian. The definitive surgery consisted of mass removal and sialoadenectomy through a unique oral approach. The surgery was effective without complications encountered after 6 months of follow-up.

Key clinical message: This article reports a novel, transoral approach, for mandibular and sublingual sialoadenectomy in the cat. This approach decreases the surgical time and prevents recurrence of the mucocele.

Anesthesia techniques used for field castration of 10 intractable horses

Bruce C. Stover, Nigel A. Caulkett (page 501)

Dealing with an intractable horse is a reality for nearly every equine or mixed animal veterinarian. Establishing an adequate level of sedation prior to induction of anesthesia for various clinical procedures involves little margin for error regarding the safety of the veterinarian, handler, and patient. This is further compounded by the extreme difficulty of gaining venous access required to obtain rapid and reliable results. This case series describes a technique of intramuscular sedation used for field castration of 10 captive, formerly wild horses, which may be useful for various other types of intractable horses.

Key clinical message: An alternative method to sedate intractable horses for induction of anesthesia is outlined. The techniques described are accessible for most veterinary practitioners, providing small-volume, fast, and reliable intramuscular sedation.

Lacrimal bone agenesis in a dog

Riccardo Rossi, Domenico Sainato, Vim Kumaratunga, Helen Renfrew (page 505)

A 20-month-old neutered male dachshund dog was referred because of a 10-week history of swelling close to the medial canthus of the left eye. Recurrence of the lesion and cytological appearance of the fluid content were suggestive of inflammation. Computed tomography revealed a triangular-shaped bone defect in the skull deep to the lesion. Computed tomography dacryocystography demonstrated contrast medium pooling within the maxillary recess and nasal cavity rather than filling the lacrimal duct. Lacrimal bone agenesis was diagnosed.

Key clinical message: Congenital skull including lacrimal bone agenesis may be responsible for swelling of the medial canthus of the eye and computed tomography dacryocystography is helpful in making a diagnosis.

Brief Communications

Association between computer-aided lung auscultation and treatment failure risk in calves treated for respiratory disease

Calvin W. Booker, G. Kee Jim, Tracey M. Grimson, K. Travis Hill, Brian K. Wildman, Jason N. Nickell (page 511)

The use of computer-aided lung auscultation (CALA, Whisper Veterinary Stethoscope; Merck Animal Health, Madison, New Jersey, USA) is a relatively new approach to assist in confirming the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). For this prospective cohort study at 1 feedlot in the United States, a CALA score was generated for 2726 feeder cattle (calf-fed Holsteins and mixed-breed beef animals) at the time of the first BRD diagnosis and treatment. All cattle were treated according to the same BRD protocol prescribed for that facility and the protocol was not influenced by the CALA score. Data were collected for 120 d after enrollment. In this study, the risk of BRD retreatment and the risk of BRD mortality were each significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the CALA score at the time of first BRD diagnosis and treatment, and those risks increased (numerically and in some cases statistically) as the CALA score increased.


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The “wicked” problem of our workforce shortage
Enid Stiles (page 441)


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Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault (page 449)


Swine veterinarians — Key players in the pork production chain
Jessica Law (page 515)


Lukas T. Kawalilak, Bruce H. Grahn (page 517)


Shrugging off the pandemic: Results of the 2020 CVMA Practice Owners Economic Survey
Chris Doherty (page 519)


Pruritic cats — from a technician’s point of view
Jennie Tait (page 523)


Farm Animal Behaviour. Characteristics for Assessment of Health and Welfare. 2nd edition
Hannah Titus (page 476)



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