CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsOctober 2020, Vol. 61, No. 10


Case Reports

A rare case of malignant vagus nerve sheath tumor presenting with multiple cranial nerve dysfunction in a dog

Lucile Giraud, Stéphane Lezmi, Eymeric Gomes, Laurent Cauzinille (page 1049)

A 5-year-old intact male Gascon Saintongeois dog was presented with a 6-month history of coughing, laryngeal paralysis, a deglutition disorder of gradual onset, and left-sided Horner’s syndrome. The dog was admitted as an emergency for acute central vestibular signs. Magnetic resonance images identified a left extra-axial brainstem lesion extending caudally from the medulla to the vagosympathetic trunk. Histological and immunohistological examination revealed a high grade epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). This case report is the first description of a MPNST of the vagus nerve compressing the brainstem and causing multiple cranial nerve dysfunction in a dog.

Key clinical message: Nerve sheath tumors have been reported in many locations arising from spinal nerve roots and cranial nerves. Although the trigeminal nerve is the most commonly affected nerve, other cranial nerves such as the vagus can be affected.

Investigation of clinical outbreaks of American foulbrood in honey-bee operations in Saskatchewan

Michael W. Zabrodski, Geoff Wilson, Igor Moshynskyy, Alexandra Wentzell, Sarah C. Wood, Colby D. Klein, Ivanna V. Kozii, Igor Medici de Mattos, Tasha Epp, Elemir Simko (page 1055)

Four outbreaks of American foulbrood were investigated in honey-bee operations in Saskatchewan during the summer of 2019. Clinical signs were confirmed by the Saskatchewan Provincial Specialist in Apiculture and the causative agent was cultured and identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Evaluation of management practices revealed off-label metaphylactic use of oxytetracycline in 3 of 4 operations and a discontinuation of antibiotic use in the fourth. Recent regulatory changes regarding access to medically important antimicrobials has provided an opportunity for veterinarians to promote evidence-based use of antimicrobials in apiculture while safe-guarding the health of commercial honey-bee populations and the economic viability of their producers.

Primary hyperlipidemia with associated ischemic strokes in a West Highland white terrier dog

Stephen Everest, Gibrann Castillo, Luis Gaitero (page 1060)

A 3-year-old spayed female, West Highland white terrier dog was evaluated because of a 4-month history of recurrent brain clinical signs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal brain lesions consistent with ischemic injuries. Blood analysis was unremarkable aside from severe hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia with no underlying cause, suggesting primary hyperlipidemia. The patient was treated for hyperlipidemia and started on a low-fat diet and omega-3 supplementation. Clinical signs resolved over the following 12 months along with improvement in lipidemia. This represents the first reported case of MRI findings suggestive of multiple cerebrovascular injuries associated with primary hyperlipidemia in a dog, and the first primary hyperlipidemia reported in a West Highland white terrier dog.


Factors associated with the adoption of technologies by the Canadian dairy industry

Murray D. Jelinski, David F. Kelton, Chris Luby, Cheryl Waldner (page 1065)

Data generated from Statistics Canada’s 2016 Census of Agriculture and Census of Population were used to describe the adoption of 8 technologies by the Canadian dairy industry: computer/laptop, smartphone/tablet, auto-steering, auto-feeding, auto-environment, robotic milking, global positioning systems (GPS), and geographical information systems (GIS). Logistic regression was used to analyze the adoption of each technology by geographical region, operators’ gender, operators’ age, herd size, and number of operators per farm. Gender and age were marginally related to the level of adoption of each technology, whereas the number of operators per dairy farm and farm size were associated with increased adoption of most technologies. Quebec had the smallest average farm size, but the highest levels of adoption for 5 of 8 technologies.

Outcome following surgical stabilization of distal diaphyseal and supracondylar femoral fractures in dogs

Francisco Silveira, Isobel C. Monotti, Anna M. Cronin, Nick J. Macdonald, Scott Rutherford, Kornelia Tiffinger, Ian Faux, Javier Rincon-Alvarez, Elvin Kulendra, Francesca Tavola, Bruno Santos, Neil J. Burton (page 1073)

Signalment, clinical features, fixation techniques, complications, and outcome for dogs presenting with distal diaphyseal and supracondylar femoral fractures were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 45 dogs with unilateral femoral fractures were included. Supracondylar femoral plates were the most popular method of fixation. However, various fixation techniques resulted in favorable outcomes in most dogs with 19/45 cases achieving full function and 22/45 achieving acceptable function. Degree of fracture comminution did not appear to affect complication rate or be a surrogate for worse clinical outcome.

Effect of intravenous fluid warming on core body temperature during elective orthopedic procedures

Robert B.E. Brady, William T. Poppell (page 1080)

The effects of intravenous (IV) fluid warming on core body temperature in a group of dogs undergoing an elective orthopedic procedure was studied. An IV fluid warmer was used alone or in conjunction with forced warmed air to determine the individual or additive effects of IV fluid warming. These effects were compared to those in dogs with no heat support or those with only forced warmed air in a randomized prospective study design. The conclusion was that IV fluid warming had no effect on the maintenance or preservation of core body temperature in this population of dogs, and that, as previous reports have shown, forced warmed air decreased the rate of heat loss during anesthetic procedures. One possible explanation for the lack of benefit is the location of the fluid warmer in relation to the patient. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effects of IV fluid warming on core body temperature in dogs undergoing an elective orthopedic procedure.

Incidence of incisional complications after exploratory celiotomy in equids affected with enterolithiasis

Albert Torrent Crosa, Scott A. Katzman, Maureen E. Kelleher, Jorge E. Nieto, Isabelle Kilcoyne, Julie E. Dechant (page 1085)

This study reports the prevalence of and risk factors for incisional complications in equids after ventral midline celiotomy for enterolithiasis. This study covered the years 2008 to 2015 and included 72 equids. Enteroliths were removed from the ascending or descending colon through 1 or more enterotomies. Complications were defined as surgical site infection and/or incisional hernia formation. Follow-up by telephone questionnaire or medical records determined that 10/72 (13.9%) equids experienced complications, with 6/72 (8.3%) developing a surgical site infection and 5/72 (6.9%) a hernia. Seven of ten were presented for chronic abdominal discomfort (> 24 hours), and 8/10 had right dorsal colon and pelvic flexure enterotomies. All equids that developed an incisional hernia and 4 with surgical site infection had enteroliths > 15 cm diameter removed from the right dorsal colon. Antimicrobial powder applied to the ventral midline incision during closure significantly reduced incisional complications. Removal of > 15 cm diameter enteroliths from the right dorsal colon may predispose to postoperative incisional complications.

Review Articles

Teleconsulting in the time of a global pandemic: Application to anesthesia and technological considerations

Daniel S.J. Pang, Jessica M. Pang, Opal-Jane Payne, Frazer M. Clement, Terrie Faber (page 1092)

As a result of the various restrictions associated with the current COVID-19 pandemic, the practice of veterinary telehealth is likely to grow substantially. One area in which high quality care can be maintained while respecting physical distancing is teleconsulting, which describes the relationship between an attending and off-site consulting veterinarian. This guide uses a dentistry case to illustrate the provision of real-time anesthesia consulting, with a focus on the technological considerations central to facilitating live, 2-way video-communication. Case selection, teamwork, and patient safety are also discussed.

Brief Communications

Influence of abdominal elevation on radiographic measurements of the thoracolumbar interspinous spaces in asymptomatic horses

Charlène Pigé, Isabelle Masseau, Alvaro G. Bonilla (page 1101)

The objective of this study was to determine if abdominal elevation could induce radiographically visible widening of the interspinous spaces in the thoracolumbar region of standing sedated horses and facilitate the surgical approach to the region. Radiographs centered on T13 and T18 were taken while applying different degrees of tension on a wide strap placed under the abdomen of 7 healthy horses. Then, the interspinous spaces between T11 and L2 were measured following a standardized method. The interspinous spaces widen radiographically between T11 to L2, except for T18–L1. Thus, the reported technique could potentially facilitate the surgical approach for horses with impinging and overriding dorsal spinous processes.

Ixodes scapularis ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi on Prince Edward Island: Passive tick surveillance and canine seroprevalence

Alexandra H. Foley-Eby, Christine Savidge, Vett K. Lloyd (page 1107)

Ticks and canine sera were submitted by veterinarians from Prince Edward Island over a 15-month period spanning 3 tick seasons. The objective of the study was to determine the infection prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme disease, in the province’s ticks and the seroprevalence in its dogs. It was found that 97.8% (n = 368) of ticks submitted were Ixodes scapularis, a species capable of transmitting Borrelia burgdorferi; 10.3% of these ticks [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6% to 17.0%] were infected. Provincial canine seroprevalence for the 199 submitted samples was estimated at 3.0% (95% CI: 1.0% to 5.1%).

Student Paper

Left-sided dacryostenosis in a dog

Jamey Erjavec (page 1111)

A 1.5-year-old neutered male black Labrador retriever dog was presented to a referral teaching hospital for evaluation of chronic, continuous, mucoid discharge and associated conjunctivitis of the left eye. Nasolacrimal flush revealed a patent duct on the right side but not on the left side. Computed tomography (CT) with a dacryocystogram identified severe stenosis or atresia of the left nasolacrimal duct. The patient was referred to a veterinary ophthalmologist for a reconstruction of the left nasolacrimal system. Ultimately, a conjunctivobuccostomy was performed and resolved all ocular clinical signs.

Key clinical message: Dacryostography, a procedure in which the lacrimal punctum is cannulated, and iodinated contrast is instilled into the nasolacrimal system was combined with CT to enable excellent visualization and evaluation of the nasolacrimal canal.


(page 1037)



We are family
Carlton Gyles (page 1033)


(page 1035)


Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault (page 1039)


Fixed and flexible practice communication
Myrna Milani (page 1115)


The Story of Lexi, and a Dream that Follows Her
Michael Zigler (page 1064)



(page 1072)


(page 1091)


(page 1117)