CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsDecember 2020, Vol. 61, No. 12



Risk factors for poor health outcomes for male dairy calves undergoing transportation in western Canada

Devon J. Wilson, Jane Stojkov, David L. Renaud, David Fraser (page 1265)

The condition of 640 male dairy calves was recorded and their health deterioration, morbidity, and mortality evaluated after long-distance transport. Assessments included a health examination, weight estimation, and measure of failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI). A McNemar Test and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the effects of pre-transport condition on subsequent health. Before transport, calf health and age at shipping varied between farms; overall, 17%, 8%, and 12% of calves had diarrhea, navel disease, and FTPI, respectively, and calves were transported at a median age of 5 days. In their first 2 weeks after transportation, 23% and 44% of calves were treated for diarrhea and bovine respiratory disease (BRD), respectively, and 4% died. Calves with navel disease, low body weight, and a depressed attitude at the farm of origin were more likely to experience negative health outcomes. Better health before transportation is needed to protect the subsequent health and welfare of young calves.

Breeder-reported patterns of antimicrobial use and point prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. among breeding bitches in the southwestern United States

Brooke J. Simon, J. Scott Weese, Anthea E. Schick, Thomas P. Lewis II (page 1273)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius skin infections are an increasing concern in veterinary medicine, especially when found in juvenile dogs with no prior antimicrobial exposure. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in breeding bitches and survey antimicrobial administration by their breeders. A total of 17 breeders and 54 bitches were included. Bitches were housed in diverse environments throughout the Phoenix, Arizona, USA metropolitan region. Nasal and oral gingival swabs were submitted for selective culture. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not present, while methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was found in only 1/54 (1.9%) dogs. Survey results revealed that 16 bitches, which did not include the 1 MRSP-positive dog, had received antimicrobials within 6 months prior to sampling. Regardless of the low point prevalence identified, veterinarians and breeders should be cognizant of risks for bacterial resistance with the overuse of antimicrobials.

The use of veterinary point-of-care ultrasound by veterinarians: A nationwide Canadian survey

Jennifer Pelchat, Serge Chalhoub, Søren R. Boysen (page 1278)

This survey assessed how veterinary point-of-care ultrasound (VPOCUS), including abdominal and thoracic focused assessment with sonography for trauma (AFAST, TFAST), is used across Canada. Seventy-four veterinarians completed an online survey; 88% (65/74) used ultrasound, 94% (61/65) performed AFAST, and 69% (45/65) performed TFAST. Reasons for not performing VPOCUS included no machine/poor quality machine, lack of experience/confidence, and lack of training/education. Abdominal effusion, and pleural and pericardial effusion were the most frequently diagnosed AFAST and TFAST pathologies, respectively. Lung and cardiovascular ultrasound examinations were infrequently performed. Subpleural consolidation was rarely included in VPOCUS. Most respondents performed VPOCUS, with AFAST being more frequently and confidently preformed than TFAST. More training, education, and standardization of techniques appear to be key elements to help build confidence and experience, particularly with regard to TFAST applications and diagnosis.

The prevalence of bacterial infections during cyclosporine therapy in dogs: A critically appraised topic

Endya J. High, Thierry Olivry (page 1283)

Cyclosporine is used to treat immune-mediated and allergic conditions and to prevent transplant rejection. To determine the prevalence of bacterial infections during cyclosporine therapy in dogs, 2 databases were searched and 14 articles reporting usable data were identified. In 828 dogs with atopic dermatitis receiving anti-allergic dosages of cyclosporine, the prevalence of bacterial infections was 11%; these occurred most often in the integument and urinary systems and not in multiple systems. In 95 dogs receiving cyclosporine at higher dosages for other conditions, the prevalence of bacterial infection was 17%, and these infections occurred most often in the gastrointestinal, urinary, and respiratory systems, often occurring at more than one body site. The prevalence of bacterial infections in atopic dogs treated with cyclosporine is low and occurs most often in the skin. When given for immunosuppression, the prevalence of bacterial infections is higher and can affect one or more body systems.

Valvular endocarditis in the horse: 20 cases (1993–2020)

Brianne Henderson, Manuela Diaz, Candace Martins, Daniel Kenney, John D. Baird, Luis G. Arroyo (page 1290)

Medical records of 20 horses with a confirmed diagnosis of valvular endocarditis at the Ontario Veterinary College between January 1, 1993 and February 3, 2020 were reviewed. The diagnosis was based on physical examination findings, complete blood (cell) count (CBC), serum biochemistry, echocardiography, blood culture, and post-mortem findings. Common presenting signs included tachycardia, pyrexia, weight loss, lameness/joint distension, and a heart murmur. Clinicopathological findings included leukocytosis, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, and elevated inflammatory markers. Culture from 5 horses yielded Actinobacillus equuli in 2 cases and Actinobacillus suis in 1 case. Of the 20 horses included in this study, 17 were euthanized and 3 were treated. Only 1 case had follow-up more than 1 year after discharge.

Case Reports

Vulvar calcinosis cutis in a female dog with urinary incontinence secondary to an ectopic ureter

Lucilene Bernardi de Souza, Marilyn Dunn, Monique Doré, Frédéric Sauvé (page 1295)

A 2-year-old, spayed female standard schnauzer dog was presented with a history of urinary incontinence and painful whitish lesions localized to the vulvar region. An ectopic ureter was diagnosed by cystoscopy. Histopathology of the biopsy specimens from the vulvar lesions was compatible with calcinosis cutis. Seven weeks following the cystoscopic laser ablation of the ectopic ureter and resolution of the urinary incontinence, the calcinosis cutis lesions completely resolved without any specific treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, vulvar calcinosis cutis secondary to urinary incontinence has not been previously reported in a dog.

Key clinical message: This is the first case report in the veterinary literature of vulvar calcinosis cutis in a female dog due to urinary incontinence.

Prescrotal urethrotomy for urethroscopic ablation of a hemorrhagic urethral mucosal mass

David L. Haine, Rachel Miller, Darren Barnes (page 1299)

A 7-year-old neutered male Staffordshire bull terrier dog was presented for investigation of chronic profuse urethral hemorrhage. A vascular mucosal mass lesion was identified in the proximal penile urethra on ultrasound examination; prescrotal urethrotomy was performed to allow rigid urethroscopy and mass removal. Histopathological changes were consistent with proliferative urethritis.

Key clinical message: Prescrotal urethrotomy to facilitate rigid urethroscopy has not been previously described and is a useful technique to allow visualization of the male canine proximal penile urethra distal to the pelvic flexure. Proliferative urethritis is an important differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with profuse urethral hemorrhage.

Septicemic pasteurellosis causing peracute death and necrotizing myositis in a beef heifer calf (Bos taurus) in Alberta, Canada

Douglas Doyle-Baker, Musangu Ngeleka, Eugene Janzen, Robert E. Briggs, Jennifer L. Davies (page 1303)

Septicemic pasteurellosis is an acute and fatal bacterial disease of cattle and wild ungulates caused by certain serotypes of Pasteurella multocida. Here we report a single case of septicemic pasteurellosis in a 6-month-old, Red Angus heifer from a cow-calf operation in Alberta, Canada. Postmortem examination revealed necrotizing and hemorrhagic myositis, fibrinous pericarditis and multisystemic bacterial emboli. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from muscle in pure culture, and the capsular antigen group was identified as serogroup B using polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of septicemic pasteurellosis in beef cattle in Canada.

Key clinical message: Veterinary practitioners and diagnosticians should include septicemic pasteurellosis on their list of differential diagnoses when they encounter similar presentations of peracute death and severe necrotizing myositis in cattle in Canada.

Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus from an abdominal abscess in an adult mare

Jannah Pye, Larry Galuppo, Mary Beth Whitcomb, Kirsten Clothier, Barbara Byrne (page 1307)

A 12-year-old Warmblood mare was referred for evaluation of behavioral changes not explained by general physical examination or lameness evaluation. Transrectal ultrasound examination was performed to determine if the behavioral changes were related to ovarian abnormalities, and a large abscess was found near the base of the cecum. Laparoscopic-guided aspiration and lavage of the abscess cavity followed by injection of benzyl penicillin G was carried out. Culture of the lavage sample yielded Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus, an organism not previously reported as an etiological agent in abdominal abscesses in horses. The mare was treated after surgery with an extended course of antibiotics (minocycline per os q12h for 10 days followed by enrofloxacin per os q24h for 42 days). The mare resumed work in competitive eventing 10 months after surgery, and the behavioral complaints had resolved according to the owner.

Key clinical message: We describe the diagnosis and treatment of a mare with an abdominal abscess from which Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus was cultured. This organism has not previously been reported as an etiological agent in abdominal abscesses in horses.

Diffuse meningeal oligodendrogliomatosis characterized by spinal intra-parenchymal nodules on magnetic resonance imaging in a dog

Céline Giron, Dominique Paquette, Déborah Culang, Monique Doré, Isabelle Masseau (page 1312)

Meningeal oligodendrogliomatosis is a relatively rare neoplasm in dogs. Ante-mortem diagnosis is difficult due to nonspecific neurologic signs overlapping other conditions. The only reported consistent feature is a high level of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid. Veterinary literature offers only 1 case report with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of canine spinal meningeal oligodendrogliomatosis in a single dog. In contrast to the predominant diffuse meningeal enhancement shown in that report, we present the case of a young female cane corso dog with marked nodular invasion of the spinal cord on MRI, confirmed by histopathology to be consistent with diffuse meningeal oligodendrogliomatosis.

Key clinical message: Meningeal oligodendrogliomatosis should be a differential diagnosis when marked nodular invasion of the spinal cord is seen on MRI, both with and without meningeal enhancement.

Student Paper

Constrictive myelopathy in an 11-year-old West Highland terrier dog

Courtney A. Gallant (page 1319)

An 11-year-old spayed female West Highland terrier dog was evaluated because of a 2-month history of progressive hind limb weakness and ataxia. The dog was bright, alert, responsive, and showing no signs of pain but was moderately ataxic in both hind limbs, and was experiencing intermittent fecal incontinence. Computed tomography and myelogram led to a diagnosis of constrictive myelopathy secondary to thoracic caudal articular facet dysplasia. The dog was discharged without undergoing decompressive surgery, and has remained stable with a combination of acupuncture, laser therapy, and physical therapy. This condition has been reported most commonly in pugs and rarely in other dog breeds.


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People who produce The CVJ
Carlton Gyles (page 1241)


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Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault
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Québec: Distribution of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (from 2015 to June 2020) and Glaeserella parasuis (from 2017 to June 2030) serotypes isolated from diseased pigs in Quebec
Sonia Lacouture, Marcelo Gottschalk (page 1261)


Special report from the Canadian Association of Bovine Veterinarians (CABV)
Frank Schenkels (Dairy veterinarian) (page 1322)


Mental health supports for farmers
Part 1
Jim Fairles, Kathy Keil, Troye Kyte (page 1325)
Canadian Veterinary Journal June 2020 ethical question of the month response from the National Farmed Animal Health and Welfare Council One Welfare Committee
Part 2


New euthanasia communications dilemmas
Myrna Milani (page 1329)


Woof! A Love Story of Dogs, Music, and Life
Clayton MacKay (page 1306)



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