CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsJuly 2019, Vol. 60, No. 7


Brief Communications

Assessment of body fluids and blood parameters associated with rapid weight change in heavy horses

Persephone Greco-Otto, Renaud Léguillette (page 721)

Horses competing in pulling competitions often undergo rapid weight change to enter lower weight categories. The aim of this study was to assess weight change and the associated changes of body water compartments in pulling horses. Weight change was attributed primarily to body water losses; however, losses from other sources were also indicated.


The association between serial point-of-care test results and hospitalization time in canine parvovirus infection (2003–2015)

Nolan V. Chalifoux, Hilary J. Burgess, Kevin L. Cosford (page 725)

The objectives of this study were to describe serial point-of-care test results in dogs infected with canine parvovirus (CPV), highlight clinicopathologic abnormalities at various timepoints, and investigate their association with the duration of hospitalization. Two-hundred and four dogs positive for CPV at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine between 2003 and 2015 were included. Data were recorded pertaining to emergency panel and venous blood gas tests at presentation, and every 12 hours thereafter (+/− 4 hours) for the first 72 hours of hospitalization. Common persistent abnormalities included hypoproteinemia, acidosis, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperkalemia, and hyperbicarbonatemia. Ionized hypocalcemia was associated with a longer duration of hospitalization and mild hyperkalemia was associated with a shorter duration of hospitalization (P < 0.05). This study suggests that the use of point-of-care tests for in-hospital monitoring may provide insight into CPV case complexity and predict total hospitalization times.

Outcome of arthroscopic debridement of cartilage injury in the equine distal interphalangeal joint

Weston R. Warnock, Chad A. Marsh, Donald R. Hand (page 731)

The purpose of this study was to report long-term outcome following arthroscopic debridement of articular cartilage lesions of the distal interphalangeal joint, diagnosed with high-field magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis was based on the results of diagnostic anesthesia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and arthroscopy. Ten horses underwent arthroscopic evaluation for cartilage injury and received various intra-articular therapies after surgery. Three of ten horses had lesions that were surgically inaccessible. Four horses became sound and returned to their preoperative level of athleticism, and 1 horse returned to performance with continued intermittent lameness. None of the horses with an inaccessible lesion achieved soundness. Duration of lameness before surgery, preoperative evidence of degenerative joint disease, and surgical accessibility of cartilage injury did not exhibit clear influence on outcome. As a primary cause of lameness, articular cartilage injury of the distal interphalangeal joint carries a guarded prognosis for soundness with surgical therapy.

A One Health approach to rabies management in Manitoba, Canada

Shauna Richards, Richard Rusk, Dale Douma (page 737)

A One Health approach was developed in the province of Manitoba in 2014 to manage human and domestic animal exposures to rabies. Manitoba Rabies Central is a collaboration of 3 provincial departments responsible for animal, human, and environmental health. Since the inception of the program 537 samples from animals suspected of rabies and causing an exposure to a human or domestic animal have been evaluated with 11.3% testing positive, 85.7% testing negative, and 3.0% being unfit for testing. Most of the positive rabies test results came from skunks (52.0%), which accounted for 12.5% of submissions. Dogs and cats accounted for 52.5% of submissions; however, only 18.9% of these animals tested positive for rabies. Domestic animals were more likely to be exposed to a rabid animal (most commonly skunks) than were humans. Humans were more likely to be exposed to dogs and cats (regardless of rabies test result).

Normograde nasolacrimal placement of an ocular-lavage system for treatment of equine eye diseases

Dustin A. Dennis, Chantale L. Pinard, Daniel G. Kenney, Rames J. Salcedo, Donald R. Trout (page 744)

The standard placement of a subpalpebral lavage system may not be feasible in some horses with eyelid disease. We describe placement of a commercially available, indwelling nasolacrimal lavage system that circumvents eyelid perforation. This novel approach provided for effective delivery of drugs to 1 horse with periocular and corneal disease.

Canadian dog owners’ use and perceptions of cannabis products

Lori R. Kogan, Peter W. Hellyer, Sarah Silcox, Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher (page 749)

The legal market for recreational and medicinal cannabis for human consumption is growing worldwide. At the same time, marketing of cannabis products for use in pets is expanding. Yet, there is little research exploring the effects of cannabis use in veterinary medicine. This study used an anonymous, online survey to assess Canadian pet owners’ reasons for purchasing cannabis products for their dogs, and their perceptions regarding efficacy of these treatments. Owners purchased cannabis products for treatment of pain, inflammation, and anxiety in dogs, and perceived these preparations to be equally or more effective than conventional medications. Most owners reported only minimal side effects in their dogs. Despite indicating comfort in discussing canine cannabis administration with their veterinarian, most owners relied on commercial websites for product information. The main reasons for choosing cannabis products were the ability to use as an adjuvant to other therapies, and the perception of it being a natural substance. Given this information, it is incumbent upon veterinarians to appropriately counsel their clients, and also to advocate for evidence-based studies to evaluate the efficacy of cannabis use in non-human species.

Euthanasia of meat rabbits with carbon dioxide: Behavioral and physiologic responses to gas chamber gradual- and fast-fill rates

Jessica L. Walsh, John Van de Vegte, Brianne Mercer, Patricia V. Turner (page 770)

The use of CO2 inhalation with different gas chamber fill rates has not been evaluated for euthanasia in commercial meat rabbits. Our objectives were to evaluate the behavioral and physiologic responses of rabbits (pre-weaned to adult) when exposed to gradual- and fast-fill rates of CO2, and to determine the time to onset of insensibility and death. Cull rabbits (n = 81) were randomly assigned to either a gradual-fill chamber displacement rate of 28% volume change/min (n = 42) or a fast-fill chamber displacement rate of 58% volume change/min (n = 39). The fast-fill rate resulted in a more rapid loss of sensibility at a lower CO2 chamber concentration and in a faster death than for gradual-fill. There were minimal differences in behavioral responses between fill rates with no clear signs of distress. These findings indicate that CO2 at the studied displacement rates is suitable for commercial meat rabbit euthanasia.

Case Reports

Limb-shortening limb salvage (LSLS) in a cat with metatarsal osteosarcoma

Matthew T. Boylan, Sarah E. Boston, Sarah Townsend, Jacqueline V.J. Cavalcanti (page 757)

The objective of this report was to document a successful partial limb amputation surgery in a cat with metatarsal osteosarcoma (OSA) including the use of pad grafts from the amputated foot. Limb shortening of the hindlimb through a partial amputation resulted in excellent limb function and usage. The patient retained functional use of the limb after surgery, with no lameness. There was no evidence of metastasis or local recurrence seen 323 days post-surgery. Limb shortening partial amputation is a reasonable option and can result in excellent limb use after surgery despite a significant loss in limb length.

An attempted intervention to solve a problem of lightweight pigs at weaning

Jordan Buchan, Robert M. Friendship, Rocio Amezcua (page 763)

The presence of a high proportion of lightweight pigs (< 4.5 kg) at weaning was identified as a problem on a 600-sow farrowing operation. An intervention strategy involving special care pens where underweight pigs were fed milk-replacer and transitioned to a commercial grain-based starter diet was evaluated and found to be of limited benefit.

Severe (grade IV) hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agent in an anesthetized dog

Karen L. Basher, Ian R. Porter, Manuel Martin-Flores (page 766)

An 8-year-old female Labrador dog was anesthetized for contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The dog was sedated with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol and anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane. Upon IV injection of iohexol 350 mg/mL (72 mL), tachycardia, hypotension, and lower airway obstruction developed. Severe hypersensitivity to the contrast agent was suspected. Bronchospasm was treated successfully with epinephrine. Phenylephrine was used for pressure support. While rare, severe hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agents can occur without evidence of prior exposure.


(page 687)



Dreams really do come true!
Terri Chotowetz (page 681)


(page 685)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 689)


One Health, health policy, and a new veterinary college
N. Ole Nielsen, James E.C. Bellamy, Barry Stemshorn (page 695)


(page 697)


Maybe money can buy happiness: Associate satisfaction and compensation
Chris Doherty (page 779)


Moving from compassion fatigue to compassion resilience Part 1: Compassion — A health care priority, core value, and ethical imperative
Debbie L. Stoewen (page 783)


Use of topical glucocorticoids in veterinary dermatology
Frédéric Sauvé (page 785)


Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Marina Leis, Stephanie Osinchuk (page 789)


Diagnosis and management of Class II malocclusion
Graham Thatcher (page 791)


Small Animal Imaging Self-Assessment Review
Christie-Leigh Capper (page 756)

Veterinary Emergency + Critical Care Manual, 3rd edition
Kathrine Lamey (page 765)



(page 761)


(page 784)


(page 796)