CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsJanuary 2019, Vol. 60, No. 1


Case Reports

Retained laser fiber in the nidus of a recurrent cystine urolith in an intact male English bulldog

Emmanuelle M. Butty, Anne-Sophie Bua, Nick P. Vanstone, Marilyn E. Dunn (page 29)

A lithotripsy and percutaneous cystolithotomy (PCCL) were performed on a 5-year-old intact male English bulldog. The composition of the uroliths was 100% cystine. When a second PCCL was performed 2 months later, the nidus of the largest urolith was a segment of an optical fiber broken off during laser lithotripsy.

Clinical and immunophenotypic findings in 4 forms of equine lymphoma

Arianna Miglio, Chiara Morelli, Rodolfo Gialletti, Eleonora Lauteri, Monica Sforna, Maria Luisa Marenzoni, Maria Teresa Antognoni (page 33)

The clinical, histological, and immunophenotypic findings are presented for 4 horses affected by different types of lymphoma. Diagnoses of a monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma, a diffuse splenic large B-cell lymphoma, a peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and a T-cell rich large B-cell lymphoma of the third eyelid were made.


Perceptions of community cats and preferences for their management in Guelph, Ontario. Part I: A quantitative analysis

Lauren Van Patter, Tyler Flockhart, Jason Coe, Olaf Berke, Rodrigo Goller, Alice Hovorka, Shane Bateman (page 41)

In 2014, 116 Guelph residents were surveyed to investigate attitudes about community cats and preferences for population management. There are an estimated 29 579 owned cats in Guelph, an estimated 40% of residents allow outdoor access to their cat(s), and 8054 households (15%) feed community cats. Participants reported more concern with community cat welfare than nuisance behavior. There were high levels of support for responsible pet ownership education (90%), accessible or low-cost spay/neuter (86%), and trap-neuter-return (78%), and low levels of support for inaction (4%) and euthanasia (20%). Respondents who did not own cats or who considered cats as "pests" or a "non-native, invasive species" were more supportive of euthanasia. Results suggest that Guelph residents want to see action taken to address community cat population concerns, and that proactive management tools such as education, accessible or low-cost spay/neuter, and trap-neuter-return would be well supported and less divisive than euthanasia.

Perceptions of community cats and preferences for their management in Guelph, Ontario. Part II: A qualitative analysis

Lauren Van Patter, Tyler Flockhart, Jason Coe, Olaf Berke, Rodrigo Goller, Alice Hovorka, Shane Bateman (page 48)

Implementation of cat population management strategies that are effective and supported by the community requires knowledge of local contexts, public values, and preferences. From 2014 to 2015 the Guelph Cat Population Taskforce surveyed Guelph, Ontario residents to investigate attitudes and values concerning community cats and preferences for cat population management. Responses from 449 individuals were received through a combination of paper and online surveys. The results of a qualitative analysis of 7 open-ended survey questions are reported herein. Results indicate that community cat issues are largely attributed to perceptions of irresponsible pet ownership practices, highlighting the opportunity for public education. Participants identified the whole community as responsible for addressing the problem, suggesting the value of collaborative management approaches. This analysis also illuminated opportunities for combining well-supported strategies such as accessible or low-cost spay/neuter and trap-neuter-return (TNR) to implement a multifaceted approach. Overall, Guelph residents who responded to the survey gave a high priority to proactive, humane management of community cats.

The effect of intramuscular dexmedetomidine-butorphanol combination on tear production in dogs

Fabio Leonardi, Giovanna Lucrezia Costa, Alice Stagnoli, Elena Zubin, Paolo Boschi, Alberto Sabbioni, Barbara Simonazzi (page 55)

This study assessed the effects of a combination of dexmedetomidine and butorphanol on the Schirmer tear test I (STT I) values in dogs. Ninety-eight dogs were sedated with an intramuscular injection of a combination of dexmedetomidine, 5 µg/kg body weight (BW), and butorphanol, 0.2 mg/kg BW. The effects of dexmedetomidine were reversed by administering atipamezole at the end of the procedure. The combination of dexmedetomidine and butorphanol significantly decreased tear production 15 minutes after sedation. The STT I values 15 minutes after reversal of dexmedetomidine with atipamezole were significantly higher than the STT I values 15 minutes after sedation but were significantly lower than the STT I values before sedation. Gender, weight, duration of sedation, right or left eye did not affect STT I values after sedation. It is recommended that dogs sedated with a combination of dexmedetomidine and butorphanol be treated with a tear substitute to combat decreased tear production.

Lung lobe torsion in 35 dogs and 4 cats

Kathryn L. Benavides, Elizabeth A. Rozanski, Trisha J. Oura (page 60)

The purpose of this study was to assess survival to discharge of animals with surgical or postmortem confirmation of a lung lobe torsion (LLT) as well as to evaluate pre-operative effusion, lung lobe affected, and patient size as prognostic indicators. Medical records search identified 35 dogs and 4 cats with a confirmed diagnosis including 17 small-breed dogs, 18 large-breed dogs, 3 domestic shorthair cats, and 1 minskin cat. Lobes affected included right middle (n = 18), left cranial (n = 18), right cranial (n = 2), left caudal (n = 1), and accessory (n = 1). Two animals died before surgery; the remaining 37 animals underwent thoracotomy. All treated small-breed dogs and cats survived; 12/18 large-breed dogs survived, with an overall survival to discharge of 87%. Pre-operative pleural effusion and affected lung lobe did not affect survival to discharge in this population. Small dogs and cats with LLT appear to have an excellent survival to discharge following thoracotomy and the survival is good in larger dogs.

Effects of a surgical checklist on decreasing incisional infections following foreign body removal from the gastrointestinal tract in dogs

Zoë A. Launcelott, Jonathan Lustgarten, Jed Sung, Sirrika Samuels, Spencer Davis, Garrett J. Davis (page 67)

Two similar populations of dogs were evaluated in either a retrospective or prospective manner for 2 weeks after gastrointestinal foreign body surgery to determine the impact of a surgical checklist on the surgical site infection (SSI) rate. The medical records of 201 gastrointestinal foreign body surgeries were reviewed to determine the SSI rate without the use of a surgical checklist (SC−) and 101 consecutive gastrointestinal foreign body surgeries were performed using a surgical checklist (SC+). The SSI rate had a significant decrease from 19.9% to 11.9% with the use of the surgical checklist. When combining the cohorts, statistically significant predictors for development of an SSI following gastrointestinal foreign body removal included: a combined gastrotomy and enterotomy, an enterotomy, and known self-trauma.

Current trends in the management of canine traumatic brain injury: An Internet-based survey

Emma Kathryn Evans, Alberto L. Fernandez (page 73)

This study characterized trends in management of canine traumatic brain injury (TBI) among 182 small animal veterinarians grouped as follows: Board-certified specialists at a veterinary teaching hospital (BCS-VTH), Board-certified specialists in private practice (BCS-PP), non-specialists at a teaching hospital (DVM-VTH), and non-specialists in private practice (DVM-PP). The BCS-VTH, BSC-PP, and DVM-VTH groups were more comfortable using the modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) than the DVM-PP group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.009, respectively). All respondents chose the following diagnostics most frequently: packed cell volume/total solids (95.6%), blood glucose (96.7%), and blood pressure (95.0%). The DVM-VTH group chose the following more frequently than the DVM-PP group: computed tomography (19.4% versus 4.5%; P = 0.027), venous or arterial blood gas (83.9% versus 46.3%; P < 0.001), electrocardiography (71.0% versus 44.8%; P = 0.018), lactate (87.1% versus 59.7%; P = 0.009), and brief thoracic ultrasound (87.1% versus 62.7%; P = 0.017). BCS-PP chose hypertonic saline more frequently than DVM-PP (94.1% versus 74.6%; P = 0.005). The DVM-PP group chose corticosteroid therapy and anticonvulsant therapy more frequently than BCS-PP (10.4% versus 0.0%; P = 0.019; 73.1% versus 43.1%; P = 0.004, respectively). This study highlights variability in management of canine TBI.

Review Articles

A review of Horner's syndrome in small animals

Danielle M. Zwueste, Bruce H. Grahn (page 81)

Horner's syndrome arises from dysfunction of the oculosympathetic pathway and is characterized by miosis, enophthalmos, protrusion of the third eyelid, and ptosis. It has been recognized in a wide variety of breeds and ages in small animal patients. The oculosympathetic pathway is a 3-neuron pathway. The central/first order neuron arises from the hypothalamus and extends down the spinal cord. The preganglionic/second order neuron arises from the first 3 thoracic spinal cord segments and travels through the thorax and cervical region until it synapses at the cranial cervical ganglion. The postganglionic/third order neuron travels from this ganglion to the orbit. Topical application of cocaine is the gold standard for differentiating Horner's syndrome from other causes of miosis. Topical 1% phenylephrine allows for identification of a post-ganglion Horner's syndrome. Numerous etiologies have been reported for Horner's syndrome, but idiopathic disease is most common. Ancillary diagnostics include otoscopic examination, thoracic radiographs, or advanced imaging. Treatment and prognosis are determined by the etiology.

Student Paper

Hypoplastic right ventricle in a dog

Alaina Macdonald (page 89)

A 7-week-old male crossbred puppy was presented in acute respiratory distress. A diagnosis of left- and right-sided heart failure was confirmed on postmortem examination. The heart had a severely hypoplastic right ventricle. Hypoxemia and ischemia are postulated to be the result of cardiac decompensation.


(page 17)



Canada's role in global veterinary medicine
Terri Chotowetz (page 7)


(page 13)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières
(page 19)


Haemaphysalis longicornis: A tick of considerable veterinary importance, now established in North America
Yaima Burgher, Marika Koszegi, Valérie H. Joel Hutcheson, Shaun J. Dergousoff, L. Robbin Lindsay
(page 27)


The true cost of credit: Student debt and repayment
Chris Doherty
(page 92)


Marina L. Leis, Lynne S. Sandmeyer
(page 95)


Canine otitis externa — Treatment and complications
Jangi Bajwa
(page 97)


Exotic Animal Formulary, 5th edition
Daren Mandrusiak
(page 54)



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