CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsNovember 2019, Vol. 60, No. 11


Case Reports

Peripheral cranial neuropathies consistent with cavernous sinus syndrome caused by extracranial nasopharyngeal lymphoma in a cat

Stephanie C. Osinchuk, Danielle M. Zwueste, Bruce H. Grahn (page 1156)

Cavernous sinus syndrome is a unique constellation of cranial nerve deficits occurring typically as a result of pathologic infiltration of the cavernous sinus, which is located in the lateral sellar compartment of the calvarium. This case report describes a polyneuropathy consistent with cavernous sinus syndrome as a result of a lesion outside of the cavernous sinus. The cat was presented with right internal and external ophthalmoplegia, loss of right corneal sensation, inspiratory stridor, dysphagia, dysphonia, tongue weakness, and weight loss. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a large nasopharyngeal mass along the base of, but without extension into, the calvarium. The histologic diagnosis was nasopharyngeal lymphoma. Focal extracranial masses should be considered as differential diagnoses for multiple cranial nerve deficits, including the constellation of clinical signs recognized as cavernous sinus syndrome.

Laparoscopic retrieval of a hepatic foreign body in a dog

Jean-Guillaume Grand (page 1161)

A 4-year-old female pointer dog was presented with a 10-day history of tensed abdomen. Migration of a metallic foreign body to the liver was diagnosed using radiography and ultrasonography. Surgical retrieval of a sewing needle was successfully performed by laparoscopy using a 3-trocar technique, thus avoiding laparotomy. No intra- or post-operative complications occurred. The dog was discharged 24 hours after surgery. Ten months after surgery, the dog was in excellent physical condition with no recurrence of clinical signs. This is the first reported case of laparoscopic retrieval of a hepatic foreign body in a dog.

A perineal cystic hamartoma causing constipation in an intact female Irish water spaniel

Alejandro Alvarez-Sanchez, Lauren Charnock, Paul Hanna, James Dundas (page 1166)

A perineal fluid-filled structure was discovered in a 6-year-old intact female Irish water spaniel suffering from intermittent constipation. Diagnostic tests revealed the structure was immediately caudal to the vagina and compatible with a cyst. Surgical excision was required for resolution of clinical signs. Histology confirmed the structure was a cyst. The exact origin is unknown; however, the variety of lining epithelia, including sections with mucin production, and a well-differentiated smooth muscle layer, were most consistent with development from the lower hindgut or urogenital sinus during embryonic growth. The histologic and anatomical similarities with human retrorectal cystic hamartomas were key in establishing the diagnosis of a perineal cystic hamartoma. Following removal, constipation resolved, and the cyst did not recur.

Concurrent spinal epidural empyema and endocarditis in a dog

Matthew Woodruff, Alana J. Rosenblatt, John Punke, Kate Heading (page 1171)

A 9-year-old neutered male Rhodesian ridgeback cross dog was evaluated for progressive non-ambulatory paraparesis, fever, and leukocytosis. The dog was diagnosed with spinal epidural empyema (SEE) and infectious endocarditis (IE) of the mitral valve based on the findings of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), CT myelography, echocardiography, and bacterial culture. The report herein describes the clinical presentation, CT findings, clinical and surgical management of this case, together with the electrocardiography, and echocardiography findings. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of spinal epidural empyema likely to be caused by infectious endocarditis of the mitral valve in a dog.

Systemic disseminated Neospora caninum infection with cutaneous lesions as the initial clinical presentation in a dog

Magali Decôme, Edouard Martin, Liza Bau-Gaudreault, Elizabeth O’Toole (page 1177)

This report describes a disseminated Neospora caninum infection with cutaneous involvement as the primary presenting clinical sign, in an apparently immunocompetent 7-year-old, spayed female boxer dog. The dog had an 8-day history of progressive lethargy associated with the appearance of multiple cutaneous and ulcerated masses, followed by an acute deterioration of her clinical status. Blood analysis revealed thrombocytopenia, increased liver enzyme activity, and partial thromboplastin time. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was suspected. Tachyzoites were identified on cutaneous cytology and species was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The post-mortem evaluation revealed involvement of the neurological system, liver, lung, and skin.

Distal esophageal sphincter achalasia in a Labrador retriever dog with polypoid gastric mucosal hyperplasia and pyloric stenosis

Charlotte Dye, Caroline Fina, Herve Brissot (page 1183)

An 11-year-old, neutered female, Labrador retriever dog was presented with a history of intractable vomiting, regurgitation, and coughing. Computed tomography (CT) imaging identified marked hypertrophy of the distal esophagus with a suspicion of distal esophageal achalasia, based on the observation of a “bird beak” appearance. This was later confirmed on a fluoroscopic swallow study. Marked hypertrophy of the gastric pylorus was also identified on CT imaging, and polypoid gastric mucosal hyperplasia was diagnosed based on the gross endoscopic appearance combined with gastric histopathology. Secondary aspiration pneumonia was diagnosed based on the results of CT imaging, bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis. Medical therapy alone failed to elicit any significant improvement, but clinical resolution was achieved following surgical intervention comprising Ventral Heller myotomy, Dor’s fundoplication, and pyloroplasty.

Response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in a horse with hyperthyroidism associated with a functional thyroid adenoma

Jillian Costello, Anna M. Firshman, Jennifer C. Brown, Michael Maher, Elizabeth M. Tadros (page 1189)

A 16-year-old American Paint Horse gelding was presented for evaluation of weight loss and high serum thyroid hormone concentrations resulting from a functional thyroid adenoma. The horse showed no response to a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test. Clinical signs resolved following surgical removal of the adenoma.


Partial splenectomy for incidentally detected non-ruptured splenic lesions in dogs: 18 cases (2004–2018)

Kaustubh R. Dongaonkar, Daniel Linden, Jacqueline R. Davidson, Harry W. Boothe, D. Michael Tillson, Brad M. Matz (page 1194)

The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the outcome and incidence of splenic malignancy in 18 dogs undergoing partial splenectomy for incidentally detected, non-ruptured splenic lesions. Incidence of splenic malignancy in the present study was 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14% to 27.65%]. Median diameter of splenic nodules was 2 cm (range: 1.5 to 4 cm). Splenic hemangiosarcoma was diagnosed in 1 dog, while the remaining 17 dogs had benign splenic lesions. There was a higher incidence of non-splenic malignancy (50%) than splenic malignancy (5.6%) in the study population. Overall median survival time after surgery was 300 days (range: 4 to 1332 days). Median survival time in dogs with malignant disease (splenic and non-splenic) was 67 days (range: 4 to 425 days) and for non-malignant disease was 727 days (range: 8 to 1332 days). In conclusion, partial splenectomy may be appropriate for small, incidental non-ruptured splenic lesions in dogs.

Disease investigations for equine infectious anemia in Canada (2009–2012) — Retrospective evaluation and risk factor analysis

Katharina L. Lohmann, Carolyn R. James, Sara N. Higgins, Krista J. Howden, Tasha Epp (page 1199)

This retrospective study describes the detection of equine infectious anemia (EIA) during Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) disease investigations in Canada, examines aspects of importance for disease control, and evaluates potential animal-level risk factors for EIA in high-risk horses. Based on review of all EIA-positive samples and all samples collected during disease investigations (N = 4553) over a 4-year period (2009 to 2012), 409 EIA cases were detected. Horse owners with EIA cases owned between 1 and 60 affected animals, and 49 horses seroconverted during a disease investigation period. Twenty-nine percent of cases (n = 68) for which this information was available had, or possibly had, clinical signs of EIA. Using a mixed effects logistic regression model, horses in older age groups were at greater odds of having a positive EIA status. The study emphasizes the importance of disease investigation activities when EIA is detected and identifies age as an animal-level risk factor in high-risk horses.

Outcome of horses with enterocolitis receiving oncotic fluid support with either plasma or hetastarch

Jamie J. Kopper, Clark J. Kogan, Vanessa L. Cook, Harold C. Schott II (page 1207)

The objective of this study was to determine whether there was an association between type of colloid administered and survival of horses with enterocolitis (N = 92). A retrospective review of medical records of horses with enterocolitis treated with plasma or hetastarch (HES) between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011 was performed. Data collected included signalment, outcome, physical and clinicopathologic findings, and volume and type of colloid administered. Sixty-nine horses (75%) were treated with plasma and 23 horses (25%) were treated with HES. After accounting for confounding variables, horses treated with plasma (80% survival) were more likely to survive to discharge than horses treated with HES (47% survival; P = 0.041) despite similar disease severity at admission. This study provides support that use of natural colloids may be superior to treatment with synthetic colloids in horses with enterocolitis. A prospective, multi-center trial comparing outcome of critically ill equine patients treated with natural or synthetic colloids is warranted.

Efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in treating gastrointestinal nematode infections in an Ontario cow-calf herd

Kaley G. Mackie, Paula I. Menzies, Ken G. Bateman, Jessica L. Gordon (page 1213)

The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to compare performance of cow-calf pairs in southern Ontario treated with fenbendazole or ivermectin, or not treated, for gastrointestinal nematode infections. Treatments were administered to 128 cow-calf pairs over 2 years. Weights, body condition score, and fecal egg counts (FEC) were collected at treatment and at 28-day intervals. Treating calves with an anthelmintic was significantly advantageous compared with not treating, and there was no significant difference between treatment with fenbendazole or ivermectin. Neither treatment nor calf FEC had a significant effect on calf weaning weight. This could be the result of time of treatment, low initial FEC, or lack of power. Treatment affected cow FEC (P = 0.003). Cows in the ivermectin groups had the lowest FEC (P < 0.05), but because FEC were all low, biological significance is questionable. Additional work is needed to provide recommendations on when an anthelmintic should be used.

Brief Communications

Congenital persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus not observed in piglets

Felipe S. Gomes, Marina L. Mechler-Dreibi, Igor R. H. Gatto, Gabriel Y. Storino, Felipe F.B. Pires, Eduarda B. Xavier, Samir I. Samara, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira (page 1220)

This study was designed to determine whether congenital persistent infection occurs in piglets from gilts experimentally inoculated with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2). Six pregnant gilts were divided into 2 groups, infected (n = 4), and control (n = 2). The gilts were inoculated at 45 days gestation. Piglets were assessed for 35 days following birth with nasal swab and blood sample collections every 72 hours. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests were performed for direct diagnosis of virus in blood and nasal swabs, and virus neutralization was used for antibody detection. Transplacental transmission of BVDV-2 did not occur. Piglets were born free of the virus and did not shed BVDV during the experimental period.

Student Paper

Patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonic stenosis in a dog: Treatment using an Amplatz canine duct occluder device with concurrent balloon valvuloplasty

Alexandra A. Soengkono (page 1223)

A 6-month-old, female intact terrier mixed breed puppy was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College cardiology service for evaluation of a subclinical heart murmur. Echocardiography identified severe pulmonic stenosis (PS) and a concurrent left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Correction via minimally invasive transcatheter techniques, including placement of an Amplatz canine duct occluder device and balloon valvuloplasty, repaired the PDA and PS, respectively. The patient recovered uneventfully and continues to show complete PDA occlusion and significant improvement in severity of PS with no clinical signs. This dog had 2 potentially life-threatening congenital heart conditions that were corrected via minimally invasive therapeutic techniques and now has excellent expected long-term prognosis as a result.


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Striving for the gold standard in animal welfare
Melanie Hicks (page 1145)


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Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault (page 1151)


Gaining experience through practicing emergency medicine
Melissa Tannahill (page 1227)


Overtaking inflation: Veterinarian compensation in government, industry, and academe
Chris Doherty (page 1229)


Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Marina Leis, Bianca Bauer (page 1233)


A Color Handbook: Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 3rd edition
Christie-Leigh Capper (page 1170)

Lavin’s Radiography for Veterinary Technicians, 6th edition
Kelly Buker (page 1206)

Small Animal Medicine and Metabolic Disorders, 2nd edition
Mira Kelada (page 1232)



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