CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsMarch 2021, Vol. 62, No. 3


Case Reports

Iridociliary adenoma in a greater sulfur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita galerita)

Sara Gardhouse, Chantale L. Pinard, Trinita Barboza, Britta Knight, Omar A. Zaheer, Leonardo Susta, Hugues Beaufrère (page 226)

A 34-year-old female greater sulfur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita galerita) was referred for suspected left globe rupture. Ophthalmic examination revealed effacement of the anterior chamber and cornea by a large mass. The left eye was enucleated due to suspicion of globe rupture, secondary to a neoplastic process or chronic trauma. Histopathological examination revealed complete effacement of the internal ocular structures by a neoplasm morphologically consistent with an iridociliary adenoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by Periodic acid-Schiff histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for S100, Melan-A/PNL2, and vimentin antigens. The cockatoo recovered well from surgery, with appropriate healing of the enucleation site, and no evidence of recurrence at 1-year follow-up.

Key clinical message: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of iridociliary adenoma in a greater sulfur-crested cockatoo, and the third report of such a neoplasm in a psittacine species with a description of the use of immunohistochemistry to confirm a diagnosis of a rare tumor in a bird species.

Review Articles

Passive transfer of colostral leukocytes: A benefit/risk analysis

John Ellis (page 233)

Passive immunity is a requirement for survival of conventionally reared domestic animals. Maternal antibody is recognized as the primary effector mechanism of protection of the neonate. There is interest, especially in bovine medicine, in the maternal leukocytes that are also transferred in colostrum. These leukocytes are thought to somehow aid in the development of the neonatal immune system and participate in cellular immune reactions in the neonate, although the means by which this is accomplished is unknown. The purpose of this article is to review the immunology of this maternal/neonatal interaction, and on that basis, evaluate the practical benefits and risks of assuring passive transfer of colostral leukocytes.


Effects of a perioperative antibiotic and veterinary probiotic on fecal dysbiosis index in dogs

Brittany Lucchetti, Selena L. Lane, Amie Koenig, Jennifer Good, Jan S. Suchodolski, Benjamin M. Brainard (page 240)

Although widely used, the effects of perioperative antibiotics on the gastrointestinal microbiome are still being researched. The role of probiotics to ameliorate adverse effects of perioperative antibiotics is unclear. The dysbiosis index (DI), based on a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique, is used to assess gastrointestinal health. The DI in dogs receiving perioperative antibiotics and the effects of concurrent probiotics were evaluated in this study. This was a prospective study of 20 dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy. Baseline and 48-hour postoperative fecal DI were evaluated. Eleven dogs received a probiotic and 9 received placebo. Pre-anesthetic DI was not different between treatment groups (P = 0.378). One bacterial group, Blautia, decreased in the placebo group (P = 0.002); however, there was no change in the probiotic group (P = 0.336). The DI increased numerically after probiotic administration, but the time × treatment interaction was not significant (P = 0.996). Administration of a probiotic failed to improve DI. Further investigation is needed to evaluate long-term effects of perioperative antibiotics on the gut microbiome.

American and Canadian veterinarians’ perceptions on dog and cat core vaccination rates and the impact of the human medicine anti-vaxx movement on veterinary medicine

Lori R. Kogan, Peter W. Hellyer, Mark Rishniw (page 247)

An electronic survey was distributed to assess American and Canadian veterinarians’ perceptions on dog and cat vaccination rates. The top veterinarian concerns for vaccinating a healthy adult dog were anaphylaxis, soreness at the injection site, and lethargy; for cats, these concerns included vaccine-associated sarcoma, lethargy, and soreness at injection site. Veterinarians reported that the most common concerns mentioned by reluctant or resistant clients to vaccinating their dogs or cats were beliefs that vaccinations are costly and unnecessary or may lead to chronic or severe illness. There was a positive correlation between an organized anti-vaxx movement against mandatory vaccination for children in their community and the number of vaccine resistant or concerned clients. That the number of resistant clients was associated with the presence of an organized anti-vaxx movement implies that the human anti-vaxx movement is impacting pet owners’ views on companion animal vaccinations.

An Internet survey of risk factors for injury in North American dogs competing in flyball

K. Romany Pinto, Alan L. Chicoine, Laura S. Romano, Simon J.G. Otto (page 253)

A survey was used to investigate injuries in dogs competing in flyball. Complete surveys were obtained from 272 respondents with 589 dogs. In the past year, 23.3% of dogs were injured, with 34.1% injured during their career to date. Common injury sites were paws/digits, back, shoulder, and iliopsoas muscle/groin. Injury in previous years, modified by weight:height ratio, was a significant risk factor for injury. Dogs > 2 y of age had increased risk of injury, as did dogs with best times < 4.0 s. Canadian dogs had increased risk of injury (30.7% injured) compared to United States dogs (20.1% injured). This relationship was modified by participation in other sports, which generally reduced risk of injury in Canadian dogs. Further investigation of risk factors should include differences in training and competition between the United States and Canada, as well as injury prevention strategies.

Conservative management of sacroiliac luxation in 17 dogs: Radiographic changes and long-term owner follow-up

Catherine N. Stecyk, Stephen C. Jones, Eric T. Hostnik, Selena Tinga, Nina R. Kieves (page 261)

The long-term outcome of dogs with sacroiliac (SI) luxation treated conservatively was evaluated in this study. The cranial displacement of the ilial wing relative to sacral length was measured. Long-term follow-up was conducted via owner telephone interview. Short-term radiographic changes were analyzed. Seventeen dogs with a mean radiographic follow-up time of 8 weeks ± 1.9 weeks and mean survey follow-up time of 63 months ± 51 months were included. Mean ilial cranial displacement at the time of injury was 42.1% ± 21.4% (range: 9% to 86%). At recheck examination, 7/9 had no worsening of displacement. Thirteen of 17 dogs were bearing weight within 2 weeks. Fourteen dogs (82%) had complete resolution of lameness within 3 months. Fifteen owners (88%) reported an excellent recovery, indicating no current lameness. No dogs were reported to have a poor outcome. Dogs with SI luxation can have excellent long-term outcomes when managed conservatively.

Hemagglutinin inhibition antibody responses to commercial equine influenza vaccines in vaccinated horses

Bruno Karam, William D. Wilson, Thomas M. Chambers, Stephanie Reedy, Nicola Pusterla (page 266)

The use of a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to assess humoral immune response to equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccines from various manufacturers administered to previously immunized adult horses was investigated. Subjects were allocated into one of 3 groups and vaccinated with various commercially available vaccines. Groups were subdivided into subjects that received 1 dose of a particular vaccine and those that received a second dose, 30 d later. Serum was collected at various times to assess antibody responses to contemporary EIV Florida sub-lineage strains. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 and all groups had a significant increase in antibody titers pre- and post-administration of the first dose. In contrast, there was no significant difference between day 30 titers and titers at subsequent time points, regardless of protocol. We concluded that administration of various commercial influenza vaccines containing a different sub-lineage clade stimulated equivalent HI antibody titers after 1 booster vaccination.

Prevalence of early postpartum health disorders in Holstein cows and associations with production, reproduction, and survival outcomes on Alberta dairy farms

Kira Macmillan, Mohanathas Gobikrushanth, Amir Behrouzi, Brent Hoff,* Marcos G. Colazo (page 273)

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associations of early postpartum health disorders with production, reproduction, and survivability in dairy cows in Alberta. Holstein cattle (N = 1096) from 11 commercial dairy farms in Alberta, Canada were enrolled. Cows were evaluated daily for clinical postpartum health disorders and a blood sample was collected once within 2 wk after calving to diagnose subclinical disorders. Overall, 61% of cows were diagnosed with at least 1 postpartum health disorder, with 25% of cows having multiple disorders. Of the cows with only 1 health disorder, 71% were classified as inflammatory and 29% as metabolic disorders. Cows with multiple disorders were at the greatest risk of reduced milk production, impaired fertility, and leaving the herd. Cows with an inflammatory disorder had reduced productive and reproductive performance, whereas cows with a metabolic disorder were at the greatest risk of mortality.

Novel strategy to decrease the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of an anesthetic circuit using a commercially available fish tank air pump: An in vitro study

Allison Goldberg, Emily McCobb, Elizabeth Rozanski (page 281)

The aim of this study was to determine whether use of a commercially available fish tank air pump (FTAP) could predictably lower the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) within an anesthetic circuit below the level of risk for O2 toxicity (FiO2 < 0.6). Three different anesthesia machines and an anesthesia ventilator were each outfitted with an FTAP. The FiO2 was measured at 4 different tidal volumes and 3 O2 flow rates at a set respiratory rate of 15 breaths per minute, and mean FiO2 was calculated. For each O2 flow rate and tidal volume combination, the FiO2 was reduced (FiO2 < 1). The FiO2 was more reliably decreased at lower O2 flow rates. A significant limitation of the study was the makeshift construction, leading to measurable leaks within the circuit. This technique could represent an economical and practical approach to providing ventilatory support in a resource limited setting.

Brief Communications

Relationship between hepatic grayish-white solid nodules in horses imported from Canada and larval Echinococcus multilocularis infection

Tatsuro Hifumi, Tetsuya Tanaka, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Kohei Akioka, Kaori Yamada, Yasutaka Imamura, Hitoshi Hatai, Noriaki Miyoshi (page 285)

Histopathological and genetic examinations were conducted on grayish-white solid hepatic nodules in 150 horses imported from Canada, in order to investigate larval Echinococcus multilocularis infection. Ten of the 150 horses (6.7%) were diagnosed with alveolar hydatid disease. The sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b genes obtained from all 10 polymerase chain reaction positive samples had 99 to 100% identity with the European haplotype E1 of E. multilocularis. Therefore, we concluded that the infections likely originated in Canada.


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Is there a silver lining to COVID-19 or is it all doom and gloom?
Enid Stiles (page 209)


(page 211)


Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault (page 215)


Start thinking of your staffing strategy like a marathon, not a sprint
Darren Osborne (page 289)


Canine sebaceous adenitis
Charlie Pye (page 293)


Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Stephanie Osinchuk, Marina Leis (page 297)


Small Animal Soft Tissue Surgery. 2nd edition
Katherine Kramer (page 246)

Small Animal Anesthesia and Pain Management. 2nd edition: A Colour Handbook
Teigen Bond (page 260)



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