CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsJanuary 2020, Vol. 61, No. 1


Case Reports

Diabetic remission in a cat treated with an implantable pump to deliver insulin

Chiara Crinò, Francesca Iavazzo, Filippo Ferri, Luigi M. Coppola, Elena Salesov, Thomas A. Lutz, Claudia E. Reusch, Eric Zini (page 30)

A diabetic cat was referred because of poor metabolic control and difficulties the owner experienced injecting insulin. A pump, telemetrically controlled with a smartphone, was implanted subcutaneously to deliver insulin. Before implantation, the pump reservoir was filled with a rapid-acting human recombinant insulin. The insulin was administered through continuous infusion or periodic boluses over 2 weeks while the cat was hospitalized and over another 2 weeks after discharge from the hospital. Adjustments of insulin dosage were performed based on blood glucose concentrations measured with a continuous blood monitoring system (CGMS). The cat achieved diabetic remission that is still lasting after 1 year. The treatment protocol adopted in this cat contributed to achieving remission. The owner’s unwillingness to inject insulin into an uncooperative cat was circumvented with the implantable pump.

Key clinical message: The implantable subcutaneous pump, telemetrically controlled by a smartphone, easily allowed the clinician to modify the type of administration and the amount of insulin delivered; the concurrent use of a CGMS allowed detection of sudden changes in blood glucose while limiting stress to the cat.

Spontaneous mural gallbladder hematoma in a dog

Olivia Jerrems, Carlos H. de Mello Souza, Vincent Wavreille, Benjamin I. Davids (page 35)

A 12-year-old spayed female Maltese dog was evaluated because of a 12-hour history of vomiting, mucoid diarrhea, and anorexia. There was no history of trauma or injury. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a well-defined mass associated with the gallbladder. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) confirmed a non-contrast enhancing mass emanating from the gallbladder wall causing separation of the serosal and mucosal margins. Exploratory celiotomy followed by cholecystectomy was performed. Histology of the gallbladder mass was consistent with a mural hematoma and there were no signs of significant inflammation or neoplasia present. The patient remained clinically normal in the 3 months after surgery and is reported to be alive and well 4 years after the procedure.

Key clinical message: To the author’s knowledge, this is the first reported case of a spontaneous mural hematoma of the gallbladder in the veterinary literature.

Mycobacterium porcinum causing panniculitis in the cat

Allison Cox, Tyler J. Udenberg (page 39)

A 4-year-old domestic shorthair cat was presented with a 7-month history of nodules and draining fistulous tracts of the ventral abdomen. Histopathological examination of affected tissue revealed acid-fast bacilli stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen procedure. Deep tissue culture confirmed infection with a rapidly growing mycobacterium, and gene sequencing characterized the organism as Mycobacterium porcinum. Treatment with pradofloxacin and doxycycline resulted in clinical resolution of the lesions. On continued antibiotic therapy 7 months later, there was no local recurrence nor were there clinical signs associated with distant spread of the infection. This is the first clinical description of a feline infection with this organism.

Key clinical message: This is the first clinical description of mycobacterial panniculitis in a cat due to genetically characterized Mycobacterium porcinum. This case report highlights a disease entity that can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to clinicians.

Diagnostic imaging of a basihyoid bone fracture and partial avulsion of the medial pterygoid muscle in a horse

Brittany Veerasammy, Massimo Delli-Rocili, Monica Jensen, Nicola Cribb, Alex zur Linden (page 44)

A 3-year-old gelding was presented for further evaluation and treatment of a swelling over the left mandible and inability to eat and drink. Radiographs of the mandible were unremarkable. Computed tomography (CT) of the head demonstrated a fracture of the basihyoid bone and partial avulsion of the medial pterygoid muscle. Ultrasound examination was performed to establish a baseline and confirmed the fracture. The gelding was managed conservatively, recovered uneventfully, and was able to return to training after 4 months of rest.

Key clinical message: Computed tomography and ultrasonography in the horse provided information about injury to the basihyoid bone and insertion of the medial pterygoid muscle.

Intravenous lipid emulsion to treat suspected cocaine toxicosis in a dog

Kirsty Royle, Carsten Bandt (page 49)

A 6-month-old puppy was treated for suspected cocaine toxicosis. Supportive care was initiated but clinical signs worsened and treatment with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) was instituted. Clinical signs rapidly resolved in response to treatment with ILE.


Comparison of single, fixed-time artificial insemination in weaned sows using 2 different protocols to synchronize ovulation

Lima Rodrigues, Rocio Amezcua, Glen Cassar, Terri O’Sullivan, Robert Friendship (page 53)

The present study evaluated 2 fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) techniques in sows in 2 herds. At weaning, sows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: Group 1 received intramuscular injections of 600 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin followed 3 days later by 5 mg of porcine luteinizing hormone; Group 2 received a 200-µg intravaginal dose of triptorelin acetate 4 days post-weaning; and Group 3 were heat checked daily and double-mated when observed in heat. Groups 1 and 2 were bred once at a fixed-time independent of estrous behavior. Time of ovulation was monitored by ultrasound in a subset of sows from each group. Both FTAI techniques resulted in sows farrowing within short intervals, leading to the weaning of pigs that tended to be older and heavier compared with controls. The use of FTAI, however, was associated with a trend to reduced reproductive performance compared with controls in 1 herd.

Concentrations and deficiencies of minerals in cattle submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Saskatchewan from 2003–2012: A retrospective study

Ursula Perdrizet, Barry Blakley, Ahmad Al Dissi (page 57)

Trace mineral analyses of samples submitted to Prairie Diagnostic Services laboratory from Saskatchewan cattle between 2003 and 2012 were examined, with the objective of describing trends and reporting concentrations and deficiencies of minerals. Deficiencies were observed with copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, zinc, and cobalt. Deficiency was most commonly seen in copper, followed by iron, manganese, and magnesium accounting for 47.2%, 15.1%, 13.0%, and 10.8% of deficiencies, respectively. Deficiency in cobalt was least common followed by zinc accounting for 4.2% and 9.7% of deficiencies, respectively. The following minerals were also analyzed: barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, antimony, tin, molybdenum, strontium, thallium, and vanadium. Submissions from 1434 animals were reviewed and a diagnosis of mineral deficiency was made for 509 animals with 92 of these having multiple deficiencies. There were significant differences in the number of deficient animals by year (P = 0.001), age group (P = 0.01), but not month (P = 0.109) or soil type (P = 0.172).

Pilot study of the effectiveness of a xylitol-based drinking water additive to reduce plaque and calculus accumulation in dogs

Candace Lowe, James Anthony (page 63)

Over a period of 208 days a randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted to assess plaque and calculus accumulation in dogs provided with a xylitol-based drinking water additive. A crossover design was utilized allowing each dog to participate in each 90-day treatment and control phase. Inclusion of a xylitol drinking water additive resulted in a 5.1% decrease in mean tooth plaque score and a 14.9% decrease in mean calculus score. Daily administration of a palatable, xylitol drinking water additive that required little time and effort reduced plaque and calculus accumulation in dogs.

The comparative efficacy of disinfectant wipes on common-use computer keyboards in a veterinary teaching hospital

Eileen K. Wong, Brandy A. Burgess, Ben M. Brainard, Craig E. Greene, David J. Hurley, Amie Koenig (page 69)

The efficacies of 3 disinfectant wipes at reducing bacterial contamination on keyboards in a veterinary teaching hospital were studied. Thirty common-use keyboards were randomized into “dirty” and “clean” halves. Cultures were obtained from the “dirty” halves. The “clean” halves were disinfected with a randomly assigned wipe [peroxygen (AHP)-, alcohol-, quaternary ammonium (QAC)-based] or untreated (NT) and cultured. Colony-forming units (CFU) were enumerated after 48 hours. Mean reduction in CFU was 91.5%, 65.3%, 94.9%, and 78.8% for the AHP, alcohol, QAC, and NT groups, respectively. There was a significant reduction in CFUs between the dirty and clean keyboard halves within each group but no statistically significant differences were noted between groups. The reduction in CFUs in the NT group was attributed to the mechanical action of wiping the keyboard surface for culture. The use of disinfectant wipes reduced CFUs on keyboards and may be a useful component of veterinary infection control programs.

Brief Communications

Update on demographics of the Canadian Dairy Industry for the period 2011 to 2016

Christopher D. Luby, Cheryl Waldner, Murray D. Jelinski (page 75)

Between 2011 and 2016, the number of dairy operations in Canada decreased by 13.3%. Mean herd size increased from 65 to 73 animals per farm. The ratio of older (> 60 years old) to younger (< 31 years old) producers also increased. The age structure of the industry suggests that consolidation will continue for the next decade, which has implications for the provision of veterinary services to dairy operations.

Student Paper

A peculiar case of soft tissue sarcoma in a cat

Werdah Iqbal (page 79)

A 13-year-old cat was presented to a clinic in Texas with an open draining lesion and severe swelling of the left foreleg. Initial diagnosis was a brown recluse spider bite and treatment was undertaken accordingly. A few weeks later, the cat was returned to the clinic with further swelling of the left foreleg. A diagnosis of a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma with an increased risk of metastasis was made based on a histopathology report. The cat was euthanized following the diagnosis as the cat had a fair to poor prognosis.


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Stay challenged and continue growing
Melanie Hicks (page 7)


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Carlton Gyles, Ron Lewis, Greg Harasen, John Prescott
(page 13)


Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault
(page 23)


Atopic dermatitis in humans and dogs
Martín A. Arcique, Jangi Bajwa (page 82)


The demand for associate veterinarians: Surveying the “shortage”
Chris Doherty (page 85)


Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Marina Leis, Stephanie Osinchuk
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