CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsApril 2020, Vol. 61, No. 4


Review Articles

Non–invasive blood pressure measurement in animals: Part 1 — Techniques for measurement and validation of non-invasive devices

Alicia Skelding, Alexander Valverde (page 368)

Arterial blood pressure is a common parameter evaluated in conscious and anesthetized veterinary species. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement techniques, such as Doppler ultrasonic flow detector and oscillometry, are attractive in certain animals due to their availability and ease of use. The greatest limitation to non-invasive blood pressure monitoring can be its inaccuracy, particularly in hypotensive or hypertensive patients and in certain species. Part 1 of this 2-part review summarizes the current techniques available to non-invasively measure arterial blood pressure in animals and discusses validation of non-invasive devices. Part 2 summarizes the veterinary literature that evaluates the use of non-invasive blood pressure measurement techniques in conscious and anesthetized species and develops general conclusions for proper use and interpretation of data from non-invasive blood pressure devices.


Internet survey of feeding, dietary supplement, and rehabilitative medical management use in flyball dogs

Ronald Koh, Christina Montalbano, Lauri Jo Gamble, Katherine Walden, Jennifer Rouse, Chin-Chi Liu, Lauren G. Wakshlag, Joseph J. Wakshlag (page 375)

A survey was designed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of feeding, dietary supplement use, and rehabilitative management use in flyball dogs. The survey was completed by 394 respondents. There were 12.5% (n = 49/392) and 33.4% (n = 131/392) of owners who fed home-cooked and raw diets, respectively, to their dogs. About 77.7% (n = 306/394) and 56.6% (n = 223/394) of owners used dietary supplement and rehabilitative management, respectively, primarily joint supplements (89.8%, n = 275/306) and chiropractic (73.1%, n = 163/223). Owners were more likely to use supplements (P = 0.0002) and rehabilitative management (P = 0.0001) when their dogs were injured. Dogs with more than one reported injury received rehabilitative management (P < 0.0001) and used supplement (P = 0.0006) more often.

Key clinical message: There is considerable demand for non-commercial food, supplements, and rehabilitative management among flyball dog owners, underscoring the importance for veterinarians to understand the motivation of dog owners’ decisions as well as the risks and benefits of these practices to ensure optimal outcomes for their patients.

Gastrointestinal nematode management in western Canadian cow-calf herds

Felicity K. Wills, John R. Campbell, Sarah E. Parker, Cheryl L. Waldner, Fabienne D. Uehlinger (page 382)

There is a paucity of information from western Canadian beef cow-calf producers about how they control gastrointestinal nematodes. The objectives of this study were to describe cow-calf producers’ management practices related to control of gastrointestinal nematodes including pasture management and use of parasite control products. A questionnaire was distributed to 105 producers in May 2015. Responses from 97 producers revealed the almost uniform dependence on the use of a pour-on macrocyclic lactone parasite control product in the fall as part of a routine farm management program. Control of external parasites was the primary reason for treatment, while none of the producers chose to treat specifically to manage internal parasites. The predominant management practices identified through this study increase the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance. The results also highlight the need to raise awareness of the importance of an evidence-based gastrointestinal nematode control program in beef cow-calf herds.

Muscle tears as a primary cause of lameness in horses: 14 cases (2009–2016)

Thomas E. Cullen, Stacy A. Semevolos, Susanne M. Stieger-Vanegas, Katja Duesterdieck-Zellmer (page 389)

This study describes clinical and ultrasonographic findings and outcomes of horses with lameness associated with muscle tears. Records of horses diagnosed with muscle tears were retrospectively evaluated. Horses in which one or more muscle tears were confirmed ultrasonographically and lameness was associated with the tear were included in the study (n = 14). Eight horses had tearing of a single muscle, 6 horses had 2 or more muscles involved. Twelve of 14 horses survived to discharge and were alive at follow-up (8 to 90 months). Recovery time ranged from 6 to 52 weeks (mean: 19.8 weeks); 6 to 16 weeks for single muscle injuries and 12 to 52 weeks for multiple muscle injuries. Of the 12 long-term survivors 3 had chronic lameness/stiffness preventing return to their previous activity level and 9 returned to equal or greater level of activity. No statistically significant difference existed between outcomes and location of injury or number of muscles injured.

Key clinical message: This study indicates that conservative management of muscle tears can result in favorable long-term outcomes.

Risk and characteristics of gastric carcinoma in the chow chow dog

Amy M. Koterbay, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, James G. Fox, Elizabeth A. McNiel (page 396)

Gastric carcinoma is not commonly reported in dogs. There is an increased risk, however, in certain breeds such as the Belgian Tervuren. Review of the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB) established an increase in risk for gastric carcinoma in the chow chow breed. In 106 chow chow dogs signs commenced, on average, 3 weeks before definitive diagnosis. The most common clinical signs were vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and melena. Most affected dogs were euthanized, without treatment, within 2 weeks of diagnosis. Two dogs which were treated aggressively (surgery and chemotherapy) survived a considerably longer time (12 and 36 months). Histologically, these chow chow dogs comprised a similar histologic type as familial gastric carcinoma in humans; diffuse-type carcinoma that was enriched in the signet ring and mucinous variants. Understanding the pathogenesis of diffuse gastric carcinoma in the chow chow dog may provide insight into the biology of this aggressive cancer in humans.

Case Reports

Transhiatal esophagogastric anastomosis and postoperative monitoring of thoracic esophageal leiomyosarcoma in a dog

Seungju Lee, Seongjoon Park, Miyeon Kim, Soonpil Hwang, Hwi-yool Kim (page 401)

A 12-year-old Maltese dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Konkuk University because of severe regurgitation. Radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography showed a mass in the thoracic esophagus. Localization of the tumor, its extraluminal nature, the positioning and involvement of the stomach, and the lack of diffuse metastasis to the lung were factors considered when developing a surgical plan. A successful surgical procedure was performed. The final diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma. Following surgery, clinical signs were significantly reduced and postoperative complications were not observed. The dog died 25 days after surgery; we suspected that the death was due to postoperative stricture.

Key clinical message: Surgical approaches that prioritize maintenance of low tension on the thoracic esophagus are important to prevent arrhythmia, bradycardia, and ventricular premature complex during esophagogastric anastomosis. In dogs with a small esophageal lumen anastomosis may lead to postoperative stricture.

Ketoconazole-induced transient hypoadrenocorticism in a dog

Alyssa M. Sullivant, Patty Lathan (page 407)

A 6-year-old, spayed female, mixed breed boxer dog was presented for decreased appetite, polyuria and polydipsia, and lethargy 9 days after treatment with ketoconazole for Malassezia pododermatitis. Ketoconazole-induced hypoadrenocorticism was confirmed with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, and ketoconazole was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved 48 hours after initiation of prednisone, and resolution of glucocorticoid insufficiency was confirmed with a repeat ACTH stimulation test 48 hours after a 10-day course of prednisone. Glucocorticoid insufficiency after administration of a commonly used dermatological dose of ketoconazole has not been previously reported in veterinary medicine but should be considered in patients with adverse effects while receiving ketoconazole.

Key clinical message: Iatrogenic hypoadrenocorticism may occur in dogs treated with commonly used dermatological doses of ketoconazole. The disease is likely transient, but steroid supplementation may be required in some patients to resolve clinical signs, especially in the presence of concurrent illness or stress.

Suspected acute pancreatitis in a dog following honeybee envenomation

Jennifer Groover, Michael Schaer, Leonel Londoño (page 411)

This report details an unusual clinical presentation of suspected acute pancreatitis that occurred after honeybee envenomation in a dog. A 13-year-old spayed female dog was presented for further evaluation of vomiting 3 days after honeybee envenomation. Abdominal ultrasound, fine-needle aspirate cytology, and blood analysis were used to establish the diagnosis. The dog recovered following supportive care. While bee envenomation induced acute pancreatitis has been reported in human literature, to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case in a dog in which pancreatitis ensued soon after envenomation.

Key clinical message: This report describes a case of a dog with honeybee envenomation that subsequently developed acute pancreatitis. Given the widespread presence of the honeybee across the globe, while rare, it is important that clinicians are aware of potential envenomation sequelae such as acute pancreatitis.

Periocular sarcoid with bone invasion in a Thoroughbred mare

Andres Giraldo, Chantale L. Pinard, Brandon L. Plattner, Marie-Soleil Dubois (page 415)

A periocular nodular sarcoid was diagnosed on the right upper eyelid and medial canthus of a 12-year-old Thoroughbred mare. Enucleation was performed and during the procedure the mass was noted to be firmly adhered to the underlying frontal bone. Partial ostectomy of the dorsal orbital rim was performed. Histopathology revealed invasion of the cortical lamellar bone and the bone marrow by neoplastic spindle cells and extension of these cells to multiple surgical margins. Recurrence at the level of the surgical site and its surroundings occurred 3 months after the procedure. The horse was euthanized 12 months later.

Key clinical message: Invasion of the underlying bone occurs in some cases of equine periocular sarcoids. The case highlights how this bone invasion might affect the surgical planning and shows potential aggressiveness of this type of tumor.

Brief Communications

Field application of a commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) oral fluid antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Emily Croft, Tim Blackwell, Jeff Zimmerman (page 420)

A commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) oral fluid antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used on 31 commercial swine farms in Ontario using oral fluid samples (∼6 per herd) collected from cotton ropes. Using the manufacturer’s cutoff [sample-to-positive ratio (S/P) ≥ 0.4], 2 of 135 oral fluid samples from 23 PRRSV presumed negative herds tested positive (1.5% false positive rate). Three approaches to improving test diagnostic specificity were compared: i) use a cutoff of S/P ≥ 0.8 for individual oral fluid samples; ii) use the current cutoff of S/P ≥ 0.4 but use a mean S/P based on several oral fluid samples (6 samples were used in this study); and iii) use serial testing to resolve unexpected positive ELISA results, i.e., retest using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine whether low positive S/P ratios are the result of early PRRSV infection in a barn.

Student Paper

Segmental uterine aplasia and ipsilateral renal agenesis in a ragdoll cat

D’Arcy Dykeman (page 424)

During a routine ovariohysterectomy on a 5-month-old ragdoll cat, right-sided segmental uterine aplasia and ipsilateral renal agenesis were discovered. The diagnosis was confirmed with histopathology. This condition is congenital and is a result of a failure of embryonic development of the paramesonephric ducts. Uterine aplasia and renal agenesis is a rare finding in cats but the prevalence in the ragdoll breed appears to be higher than in the general cat population.


(page 351)



Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine
Carlton Gyles (page 345)


(page 349)


Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault (page 353)


Moving from compassion fatigue to compassion resilience Part 3: Causes of compassion fatigue
Debbie L. Stoewen (page 427)


How tapping into his creative side led one veterinarian to greener pastures
Natalie Morrissey (page 431)


When what makes sense doesn’t
Myrna Milani (page 433)



(page 426)


(page 435)