Table of Contents and AbstractsMay 2018, Vol. 59, No. 5



Developing an evidence-based approach for antimicrobial resistance reporting for British Columbia diagnostic animal health laboratory data

Theresa Burns, Brian R. Radke, Tyler Stitt, Carl Ribble (page 480)

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data generated by diagnostic animal health laboratories are underutilized for AMR reporting in Canada. Data assessment, review of practices in other jurisdictions, and expert interviews were used to develop an evidence-guided plan to generate AMR reports from British Columbia Animal Health Centre (AHC) data that would provide transparent, timely, and useful information to public health practitioners, the food animal sector, and the general public. Using the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network (CAHSN) platform was the most efficient method of data retrieval. Project outputs included 2 publicly available reports. The public health report included AMR information for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The animal health report included AMR information for Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri from Atlantic salmon, bacteria from bovine milk samples, and staphylococci from broiler chickens. A preliminary comparison was conducted between selected AHC data and publicly available Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) reports.

Reflections on the provision of veterinary services to underserved regions: A case example using northern Manitoba, Canada

Caroline Boissonneault, Tasha Epp (page 491)

Rural, remote, and Indigenous communities often contend with free-roaming dog populations, increasing the risk of aggressive dog encounters, particularly dog bites and fatal dog attacks. This qualitative survey gathered a range of perspectives to ascertain the current veterinary services available in rural, remote, and Indigenous communities of northern Manitoba, as well as needs, barriers to, and considerations for future veterinary care provision. Survey results indicated terminology such as "overpopulation" and "rescue" need to be carefully considered as they may have negative connotations for communities. While veterinary services such as vaccination and deworming are important for public health, most programs were focused on sterilization. There was consensus that conversations must begin with individual communities to determine what services are needed and how to fulfil those needs. Perceived barriers include the remoteness of communities, finances, and culturally different views of veterinary medicine. Recommendations for future delivery of services include increased frequency and funding of current models, while others focused on different methods of delivery; all of which will require further discussions within the veterinary community and with other stakeholders.

Total intravenous anesthesia using a midazolam-ketamine-xylazine infusion in horses: 46 cases (2011–2014)

Turi K. Aarnes, Phillip Lerche, Richard M. Bednarski, John A.E. Hubbell (page 500)

This study evaluated use of midazolam, ketamine, and xylazine (MKX) for total intravenous (IV) anesthesia (TIVA) in horses. Medical records of 46 horses undergoing a clinical procedure using MKX for TIVA were reviewed. Age, breed, procedure, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), pre-anesthetic drugs, induction drugs, and total volume of MKX were recorded. Duration of anesthesia, time to standing, number of attempts to stand, and recovery score were also recorded. All horses were premedicated with an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist and anesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam. Duration of MKX infusion was 33 ± 14 min. Heart rate and RR decreased during the infusion of MKX. Time to endotracheal extubation was 19 ± 12 min. Horses stood at 33 ± 13 min. Median number of attempts to stand was 1. Maintenance of anesthesia of horses with MKX was useful for a variety of procedures and recovery from anesthesia was good.

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific IgG-1 in nasal secretions of colostrum-fed neonatal calves

John A. Ellis, Manuel F. Chamorro, Stacey Lacoste, Sheryl P. Gow, Deborah M. Haines (page 505)

In order to determine whether nasal secretions of young calves contain passively derived antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and if there are differences in presence and/or subclass of these antibodies between calves fed different colostrum replacement products, 17 Holstein calves were fed 150 g of IgG in either a sprayed-dried colostrum-based (CR; n = 8) or a plasma-based colostrum replacement product (PR; n = 9) within 6 h of birth. Venous blood and nasal secretions obtained before feeding and at 24 h of age were assayed for total IgG (serum) by radial immunodiffusion and for BRSV-specific total IgG, IgG-1, and IgG-2 by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Calves that were fed a CR had higher concentrations of BRSV-specific IgG and IgG-1 in their serum and nasal secretions compared to calves fed product PR; calves fed the PR had higher levels of serum BRSV-specific IgG-2. The only subclass of antibodies detected in nasal secretions was IgG-1. Re-secretion of passive IgG with neutralizing activity, onto the nasal mucosa could contribute to BRSV-associated disease-sparing observed in the laboratory and in the field. Use of PR will result in lower nasal antibodies since IgG-2 is not re-secreted.

Review Articles

Equine duodenitis-proximal jejunitis: A review

Luis G. Arroyo, Diego E. Gomez, Candace Martins (page 510)

Duodenitis-proximal jejunitis (DPJ) is an inflammatory process of the proximal part of the small intestine and occurs sporadically in horses. It is clinically characterized by an acute onset of ileus and nasogastric reflux leading to systemic signs of toxemia. This review discusses the definition of the disease, potential etiologic agents, clinical findings, epidemiological features, histopathologic and clinico-pathological findings, and medical management of this condition. Salmonella spp., mycotoxins, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium difficile have all been associated with the disease but there is limited supporting evidence for any agent other than C. difficile. Particular attention, however, was given to etiological investigations and the data available to support the proposed etiological agents. The potential role of C. difficile as the etiological agent of DPJ, possible pathogenesis, and recent efforts to support this hypothesis are highlighted, but it is recognized that there could be more than one agent that causes the disease.

Case Reports

Spontaneous resolution of bilateral congenital patellar luxation in an alpaca cria

Emily E. John, Laurent Viel (page 518)

An 8-day-old alpaca was presented for suspected meconium impaction and abnormal gait and posture. Physical examination revealed bilateral medial patellar luxation. In previous reports, medical treatment of patellar luxation in crias has been associated with a poor to grave prognosis; here we report a case of successful resolution.

Diaphragmatic hernia in a pet chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera)

Jessica Aymen, Isabelle Langlois, Isabelle Lanthier (page 521)

A 10-year-old pet chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was referred for ultrasound investigation of a thoracic mass. The mass was initially believed to be a pulmonary abscess or tumor based on radiographs and ultrasound. Cytological examination suggested the presence of a gastrointestinal structure in the thorax, and necropsy revealed a true diaphragmatic hernia subdividing the stomach into thoracic and abdominal portions.

Reproductive failure associated with coinfection of porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

Chun Kuen Mak, Ching Yang, Chian-Ren Jeng, Victor Fei Pang, Kuang-Sheng Yeh (page 525)

An outbreak of reproductive failure in a pig farm in Taiwan was investigated. Coinfection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was diagnosed in a stillborn pig by histopathology, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry, and should be considered as a cause of reproductive failure.

Student Paper

Feline hepatobiliary neoplasia and mistaken age

Kathryn M. Hotke (page 531)

A cat, thought to be 5 years old, and with reduced appetite and weight loss, was presented for dental cleaning and extractions. Bile duct origin hepatic carcinoma was diagnosed. The progression of iris degeneration, dental disease, histological renal lesions, spondylosis, and hepatobiliary neoplasia suggest this cat was closer to 10 years old.


(page 467)



Question 3 of the March Quiz — A comment
Walt Ingwersen (page 457)

Toward a harmonized approach to animal welfare law in Canada — A comment
Wayne Lees (page 459)

Veterinary school admission — A response
Paul Francis (page 459)


New technologies and the challenges they present
Troye McPherson (page 461)


(page 465)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 469)


Dr. Michelle Oakley shares poignant lessons
Alexandra Schlesiger (page 535)


Burnout: Prescription for a happier healthier you
Debbie L. Stoewen (page 537)


Gaining ground on inflation: Associate veterinarian compensation
Chris Doherty (page 541)


Demodicosis: New treatment, common misdiagnosis
Michael G. Charach (page 545)


Chronic Disease Management for Small Animals, 1st edition
Kathy Kramer (page 499)



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