Table of Contents and AbstractsSeptember 2018, Vol. 59, No. 9



Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from horses from the Atlantic Provinces, Canada (1994 to 2013)

Babafela B. Awosile, Luke C. Heider, Matthew E. Saab, J.T. McClure (page 951)

This study determined the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and trends for selected bacteria isolated from horses using diagnostic data from the Atlantic Veterinary College Diagnostic Services Bacteriology Laboratory, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island over a 20-year period. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and Escherichia coli were the most commonly isolated bacteria over the study period. Clinical samples were most frequently submitted from respiratory and reproductive systems. Most bacterial isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur. Resistance was most common in Gram-negative enteric bacteria, while streptococci were frequently susceptible to most of the antimicrobials tested including penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The antimicrobial resistance trends over the study period were relatively stable. Multi-drug resistance was observed in 9% of the bacterial isolates. Information provided in this study could be used to help guide rational, empirical antimicrobial treatment selection in equine practices in Atlantic Canada.

A randomized blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on canine elbow osteoarthritis

Andrea L. Looney, Janice L. Huntingford, Lauren L. Blaeser, Sabine Mann (page 959)

The effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) or sham light therapy on pain, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) requirement, and lameness was studied in 20 dogs with naturally occurring elbow osteoarthritis. Dogs (n = 20) were randomly assigned to receive either PBMT (group PBMT; n = 11) 10 to 20 J/cm2 or a placebo treatment (sham light group S; n = 9) treatment 0 J/cm2, to both elbows for 6 weeks. Lameness score, pain score, and NSAID dose were recorded by blinded study personnel before and 7 to 10 days after last treatment. Reduction in NSAID dose occurred in 9/11 dogs in the PBMT group, and in 0/9 of group S dogs (P = 0.0003). There was greater improvement in lameness score post PMBT versus S therapy (P = 0.001). A greater reduction in pain score was detected in 9/11 parameters in group PBMT (P < 0.05). Regularly scheduled PBMT at 10 to 20 J/cm2 per joint for 6 weeks was successful in improving lameness and pain scores, and in lowering NSAID requirement in canine elbow osteoarthritis patients.

Canine visceral hemangiosarcoma treated with surgery alone or surgery and doxorubicin: 37 cases (2005–2014)

Karen Batschinski, Alessandra Nobre, Ernesto Vargas-Mendez, Marcello V. Tedardi, Juliana Cirillo, Greice Cestari, Rodrigo Ubukata, Maria Lucia Z. Dagli (page 967)

The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine survival times and prognostic factors of dogs with visceral hemangiosarcoma (HSA) treated with surgery alone or surgery and doxorubicin. Medical records from 2 hospitals from 2005 to 2014 were searched for dogs with histopathologically confirmed visceral HSA. Data relevant to patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and outcomes were abstracted. The most common primary organ affected was the spleen; however, primary tumor location had no influence on prognosis. Twenty-three dogs were treated with surgery alone, while 14 dogs were treated with surgery and doxorubicin. There was a significant difference in survival times between dogs treated with surgery alone and with surgery followed by doxorubicin (66 days versus 274 days). Dogs with stage I tumors (196 days) had a longer median survival time (MST) than dogs with stage II (117 days) and stage III (23 days) disease. The overall MST was 179 days with a 1-year survival rate of 29.2%.

Ultrasound measurements of the caudal vena cava before and after blood donation in 9 greyhound dogs

Kristen A. Marshall, Elizabeth J. Thomovsky, Aimee C. Brooks, Paula A. Johnson, Chee Kin Lim, Hock Gan Heng (page 973)

This prospective study evaluated variation in the diameter of the caudal vena cava (DCdVC) as a marker of change in intravascular volume before and after blood donation in greyhound dogs. A preliminary study determined that the DCdVC increased with body weight. Nine greyhound blood donors had ultrasonographic images acquired of the maximum and minimum DCdVCs in transverse and sagittal orientations and sagittal aortic diameter (AoD) before and after blood donation. The collapsibility index = [(maximal mean transverse DCdVC — minimal mean transverse DCdVC)/maximal mean transverse DCdVC] and transverse DCdVC:AoD ratio were calculated for each dog. In the greyhounds, the changes in mean minimal and maximal transverse DCdVC (0.69 and 0.84 mm, respectively) and sagittal mean maximal DCdVC (0.9 mm) and collapsibility index (0.018) were significantly different (P < 0.05) before and after blood donation. While statistically significant, the magnitude of DCdVC change found in this limited number of greyhound dogs with 8% intravascular volume loss during blood donation was small. This magnitude of change is likely indistinguishable in clinical patients.

Post-surgical outcome and prognostic factors in canine malignant melanomas of the haired skin: 87 cases (2003–2015)

Travis Laver, Brittany R. Feldhaeusser, Cecilia S. Robat, Jennifer L. Baez, Kim L. Cronin, Paolo Buracco, Maurizio Annoni, Rebecca C. Regan, Sarah K. McMillan, Kaitlin M. Curran, Laura E. Selmic, Kai-Biu Shiu, Kyle Clark, Erin Fagan, Douglas H. Thamm (page 981)

The medical records of 87 dogs treated with surgery for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) of the haired skin were retrospectively reviewed for overall survival time (OST), progression-free survival time (PFS), and prognostic factors. The post-surgery median PFS and median OST were 1282 days and 1363 days, respectively. The post-surgery metastatic rate was 21.8% with a local recurrence rate of 8%. Increasing mitotic index (MI) was predictive of a significantly decreased OST and PFS on multivariable analysis [hazard ratio (HR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.07 and HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06, respectively]. Increasing age was likewise predictive of a significantly decreased OST and PFS on multivariable analysis (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.65 and HR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.54, respectively). These results confirm clinical impressions that long survival times are likely in dogs diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the haired skin when treated with surgery alone.

Seminal plasma does not aid in the transport of phenolsulfonphthalein across the uterotubal junction in mares

Kayla A. Ross, David S. Kolb, Alysson Macedo, Marion Anderson, Claudia Klein (page 988)

This study tested the hypothesis that the presence of prostaglandin E2 in seminal plasma would aid in the transport of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) across the uterotubal junction. Five mares in estrus were inseminated during estrus with PSP dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline and during the subsequent estrus with PSP added to a standard insemination dose. Serum and urine samples were obtained at hours 0, 1, 2, and 3 following treatment and examined for the presence of PSP. Phenolsulfonphthalein could not be detected in any of the urine samples collected from mares following either treatment. None of the serum samples collected following intrauterine installation of PSP in PBS contained PSP. Phenolsulfonphthalein was detected in serum samples from 1 mare following insemination with semen containing PSP. Components in seminal plasma such as PGE2 did not facilitate the transport of PSP across the uterotubal junction as had been hypothesized.

Case Reports

Tetralogy of Fallot with concurrent patent foramen ovale and tricuspid valve dysplasia in a dog

Wilson Chung, Etienne Côté, Risa Roland (page 993)

The echocardiographic findings of a young Pomeranian-cross dog with tetralogy of Fallot, patent foramen ovale, and tricuspid valve dysplasia are described. Ongoing medical management of hypoxemia and erythrocytosis was carried out and the dog survived to 2 years of age. Treatment options for tetralogy of Fallot are discussed.

Brief Communications

An epidemiological study of Streptococcus suis serotypes of pigs in Ontario determined by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction

Emily R. Arndt, Abdolvahab Farzan, Durda Slavic, Janet I. MacInnes, Robert M. Friendship (page 997)

The purpose of the study was to identify the serotypes of Streptococcus suis from tonsil swabs in clinically ill and healthy pigs in Ontario using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Although 22 different serotypes were identified, most isolates were S. suis-like bacteria or untypable.

Changing demographics of the Canadian cow-calf industry for the period 2011 to 2016

Murray D. Jelinski, Cheryl Waldner (page 1001)

From 2011 to 2016, both the number of cow-calf producers and farm operations in Canada decreased by 12.4%. Furthermore, the current demographics portend a similar or greater loss in the number of producers and farms by the next census (2021). This level of consolidation has implications with respect to veterinary education and how practitioners will service the cow-calf sector.

Student Paper

Spongiform encephalomyelopathy in a calf with a congenital portosystemic shunt

Janna Pietersma (page 1005)

A 3-month-old Holstein heifer calf was presented because of an abnormal gait. Further examination revealed cranial nerve deficits, including a severely delayed corneal reflex. The calf was not ataxic and maintained an appetite, but was considerably stunted for her age. A postmortem examination resulted in a diagnosis of a congenital portosystemic shunt.


(page 939)



July 2018 Quiz: Appropriate choice of an antimicrobial drug — A comment
John Prescott, J.T. McClure (page 929)


Reach out and get involved
Terri Chotowetz (page 931)


(page 935)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 942)


Sharing in the spoils: Non-DVM wages outpacing inflation
Chris Doherty (page 1009)


An embarrassment of riches: An update on the symptomatic treatment of canine atopic dermatitis
Kinga Gortel (page 1013)


Marina L. Leis, Lynne S. Sandmeyer (page 1017)



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(page 1020)