Table of Contents and AbstractsNovember 2018, Vol. 59, No. 11



Visual inspection of stored canine blood for hemolysis compared with measured plasma-free hemoglobin to assess suitability for transfusion

Brittany Jaeger, Miryam Reems (page 1171)

Canine blood was visually inspected for hemolysis and compared with the Food and Drug Administration's standard of less than 1% hemolysis as measured by plasma-free hemoglobin. This was the basis for deciding to transfuse or dispose of stored canine blood. Free hemoglobin was measured in stored red blood cell units and compared to a calculated 1% hemolysis. Veterinarians and technicians determined if they would transfuse units based on visual inspection for hemolysis. Their evaluation was compared to the calculated hemolysis cutoff. The evaluations of veterinarians and technicians were significantly different from the mathematically derived cutoff. The technicians' visual assessments of the usability of samples were significantly different from those of the veterinarians: technicians more frequently judged the sample as unusable. Experienced veterinary personnel both over- and under-estimate the degree of hemolysis in stored canine RBCs. We recommend objective analysis of the amount of free hemoglobin in stored blood prior to transfusion.

Vasopressor use in 41 critically ill cats (2007–2016)

Nikki Licht, Elizabeth A. Rozanski, John E. Rush (page 1175)

This study describes the use of vasopressors in critically ill cats. Records of 41 cats hospitalized in the ICU were evaluated. Signalment, blood pressure, underlying conditions, evidence of sepsis, type of treatment (surgical versus non-surgical), vasopressor type and duration, adverse events attributed to vasopressors, and survival were recorded. Twenty-one cats (51%) had an underlying disease considered amenable to surgical treatment while 20 (49%) cats did not. Evidence of sepsis was present in 24 (59%) cats. Thirty-four cats developed a Doppler blood pressure (DBP) > 80 mmHg during therapy, and 29 cats became normotensive (DBP > 90 mmHg). Seven cats did not increase their DBP to > 80 mmHg. All cats received dopamine and/or norepinephrine and 6 cats also received other vasopressors. Sixteen cats survived (39%). Surgical intervention was associated with a higher survival (P = 0.004). Critically ill hypotensive cats may benefit from administration of vasopressors.

Many Canadian dog and cat foods fail to comply with the guaranteed analyses reported on packages

Stuart W. Burdett, Wilfredo D. Mansilla, Anna K. Shoveller (page 1181)

We compared analyzed nutrient contents of Canadian-specific dry dog and cat foods to the guaranteed analyses on packages and to the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) 2018 nutrient targets to assess compliance with the Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act. We also explored differences in macronutrient content between species (dog and cat) and life stage for adult pet foods (all life stages and senior). Extruded dog (n = 16) or cat (n = 11) foods advertised as all life stage or senior, sold only in Canada, and carrying an AAFCO nutritional adequacy statement were selected. Proximate analyses and amino acid analyses were completed on all diets. Of the 27 foods, 25 met or exceeded the AAFCO nutrient recommendations. Only 9 foods met all nutrient content claims listed in their guaranteed analyses. Nutrient content between species or life stages was not different (P > 0.10).

Sartorius muscle flap for body wall reconstruction: Surgical technique description and retrospective case series

Sebastian Mejia, Sarah E. Boston, Owen T. Skinner (page 1187)

The objectives of this study were to describe the sartorius muscle flap for body wall reconstruction, including description of the anatomy and surgical technique and to report its clinical application for abdominal wall reconstruction in dogs and cats. The descriptive report involves a retrospective case series for 2 dogs and 3 cats. Inclusion criteria were cats or dogs that had a tumor resection resulting in an abdominal wall defect that was reconstructed using an ipsilateral or contralateral sartorius muscle flap. Signalment, pre-operative clinical signs, location and tumor extent, diagnostic imaging and clinical pathology findings, surgical methods, and complications were recorded. Abdominal wall defect reconstructions using the sartorius muscle flap were successfully performed in all 5 patients with good return to function. All complications were minor and were successfully medically managed. This case series demonstrates that the sartorius muscle flap is a feasible option for the closure of large caudal abdominal wall defects.

Antimicrobial resistance of bovine Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica isolates from the Alberta Agriculture and Forestry Disease Investigation Program (2006–2014)

Simon J.G. Otto, Katrina L. Ponich, Rashed Cassis, Carol Goertz, Delores Peters, Sylvia L. Checkley (page 1195)

The objectives of this study were to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes of clinical Salmonella spp. isolates from Alberta cattle, to inform antimicrobial stewardship decisions for Alberta bovine veterinarians and to provide data for national surveillance. Isolates were collected from cattle and serotyped by Alberta Agriculture and Forestry from 2006 to 2014. Susceptibility testing was completed using Canadian surveillance breakpoints. There were 81 unique Salmonella isolates from 72 visits to 27 farms. The majority of isolates were S. Typhimurium (66.7%) and S. Dublin (19.8%). The prevalence of multidrug resistance was high in S. Typhimurium (89.1%) and S. Dublin (93.8%), including ceftiofur resistance (43.6% and 68.8%, respectively), while there was no resistance in other serotypes. As ceftiofur is a recommended treatment option for enteritis and septicemia caused by Salmonella in cattle, these results reinforce that obtaining bacterial culture and susceptibility results is critical for suspected cases of bovine salmonellosis in Alberta.

A longitudinal investigation of an outbreak of toe tip necrosis syndrome in western Canadian feedlot cattle

Murray Jelinski, Sonia Marti, Eugene Janzen, Karen Schwartzkopf-Genswein (page 1202)

This investigation followed a cohort (n = 21) of single-sourced Angus cross yearling heifers diagnosed with toe tip necrosis syndrome (TTNS). The animals were intensively followed for ~7 months, over which time 5 animals were euthanized because of intractable lameness or life-threatening sequelae such as cellulitis and myositis. Treatment consisted of systemic antimicrobial and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy, removing the necrotic horn tissue to facilitate drainage, and relocating the cattle to an earthen-floor pen. Sixteen of the 21 heifers recovered uneventfully. Upon sectioning the feet after slaughter, all the foot lesions had healed, but in some instances, the 3rd phalangeal bone had undergone bone remodeling, indicative of an earlier pathological process. This study is unique in that it chronicled the clinical and pathological outcomes associated with TTNS over an extended period.

Case Reports

Piecemeal endoscopic polypoidectomy for the management of a canine pharyngeal hemangiosarcoma

Joseph Cyrus Parambeth, Jessica M. Vallone, John F. Griffin IV, Audrey K. Cook (page 1209)

A 7-year-old castrated male Maltese dog was presented for increased respiratory sounds, inability to bark, dysphagia, and hyporexia. Radiographs revealed an ovoid, opaque mass in the caudal nasopharynx. An airway examination and computed tomography scan were followed by endoscopic polypoidectomy. The mass was a hemangiosarcoma, and the patient survived > 13 months.

Successful control of disseminated follicular cysts in a dog with low dose isotretinoin

Marcin Szczepanik, Piotr Wilkolek, Lukasz Adamek, Anna Smiech, Iwona Taszkun, Grzegorz Kalisz (page 1213)

A case of disseminated cysts in a dog is described. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of follicular infundibular cysts, which were treated with isotretinoin at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight (BW), q24h for 1 week, followed by a dose of 1 mg/kg BW for 3 months. Symptoms resolved after this course of treatment.

Propofol infusion-like syndrome in a dog

John M. Mallard, Teresa M. Rieser, Nathan W. Peterson (page 1216)

An 8-year-old, spayed female Chihuahua mixed breed dog was presented for dyspnea and was subsequently mechanically ventilated. Propofol was utilized as part of the anesthetic protocol. The dog developed rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, cardiac arrhythmias, liver enzyme elevation, and methemoglobinemia. Propofol was discontinued and N-acetylcysteine was administered after which the clinical signs resolved.


(page 1153)



Our unsung heroes
Terri Chotowetz (page 1145)


(page 1149)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 1155)


Companion animal practices versus mixed and large: A 10-year comparison/Cliniques pour animaux de compagnie et cliniques mixtes et pour grands animaux : comparaison sur une période de 10 ans
Darren Osborne (page 1223)


Marina L. Leis, Lynne S. Sandmeyer (page 1227)


Stay positive and set boundaries
Alexandra Schlesiger (page 1229)


Pseudomonas otitis externa in dogs
Charlie Pye (page 1231)



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