CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsSeptember 2019, Vol. 60, No. 9



Resistance to antimicrobials used at hatchery level among clinical Escherichia coli isolates from Ontario broilers

Stefanie V. Kadykalo, David L. Pearl, Durda Slavic, Scott A. McEwen (page 945)

Antimicrobials are used for prophylactic purposes in some flocks because chicks are susceptible to pathogenic bacterial infection at the hatchery stage. The objectives of this study were to assess temporal changes in resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin in Escherichia coli clinical isolates from Ontario broiler chickens between 2008 and 2015, to determine whether stage of production, year and season are predictors of resistance, and whether published data on antimicrobial use help to interpret the temporal patterns in resistance. Logistic regression revealed that stage of production, year, and season were significant predictors of resistance to all 3 antimicrobials. Resistance to ceftiofur fluctuated over time, with a trend towards decreasing resistance between 2013 to 2015; resistance to gentamicin and spectinomycin increased over the study period, with significantly high resistance clusters identified from 2013 to 2015. Comparisons with published hatchery-level antimicrobial use data suggest that these trends may reflect changes in use of ceftiofur and spectinomycin in Ontario.

Experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of accredited advisors towards a voluntary producer training program for Canadian Quality Milk

M.E. Alexandrea Watters, M. Ann Godkin, David F. Léger, Jason B. Coe, Kerry D. Lissemore, David F. Kelton (page 955)

This study was conducted to understand the experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of advisors towards the voluntary producer training program offered in Ontario prior to the first Canadian Quality Milk validation. A survey was used to gather advisor opinions and was sent by e-mail to all advisors listed on the Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) website. ANOVA and Chi-Square analyses were utilized to identify significant differences among respondent groups (veterinarian, non-veterinarian, and unidentified), linear regression was used to evaluate associations with the number of producers an advisor trained, and logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations with advisor opinions. Advisors who trained more producers were more likely to provide both classroom and on-farm sessions, train producers with greater consistency in audit results, and remain in communication with producers they had trained. Advisor-suggested improvements for similar programs in the future were increased compensation, more use of interactive learning, and re-structured advisor training.

Evaluation of red blood cell distribution width in dogs with various illnesses

Carlos Martinez, Carmel T. Mooney, Robert E. Shiel, Pak Kan Tang, Louise Mooney, Emma J. O’Neill (page 964)

In humans, increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW) values are associated with higher morbidity and mortality in a variety of pathological processes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate RDW in dogs with a diverse range of pathologies. Clinical data from 276 dogs were retrospectively evaluated. Significantly higher RDW values were found in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (P < 0.0001), immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (P < 0.0004), hyperadrenocorticism (P < 0.0001), hypothyroidism (P = 0.0220), hepatic vascular anomaly (P < 0.0001), pneumonia (P < 0.0001), chronic kidney disease (P = 0.0005), multi-centric lymphoma (P = 0.0002), and myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (P = 0.0032). However, there was extensive overlap with the values from healthy dogs, limiting the diagnostic value of RDW in this setting. Although RDW may have a role as a potential prognostic indicator, further studies would be necessary to address this.

Case Reports

Presumptive seeding metastasis of pericardial mesothelioma following repeated pericardiocentesis in a dog

Keaton R.S. Morgan, Christopher G. Dominic, Janet Beeler-Marfisi, Karlee Craig, Katie L. Hoddinott, Siobhan O’Sullivan, Ameet Singh (page 972)

A dog with a history of recurrent pericardial effusion that required repeated pericardiocentesis was presented to the surgical service at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre for thoracoscopic pericardiectomy. Physical examination revealed a subcutaneous mass in the right lateral thorax. Cytology of the subcutaneous mass and histopathology of the pericardium were consistent with mesothelioma. This article details the first reported case of pericardial mesothelioma with suspected extra-thoracic metastasis following pericardiocentesis in a dog.

Cochleotoxicity and acute kidney injury secondary to parenteral gentamicin administration in a dog

Amanda Fisk, Leonel Londoño, Sheila Carrera-Justiz, Gareth Buckley (page 976)

A 5-year-old neutered male Labrador retriever dog was presented on referral for anuric acute kidney injury (AKI) presumed secondary to parenteral gentamicin administration. Initial management of AKI included a high dose of furosemide for 16 hours which may have contributed to the renal and cochlear damage. The dog received a total of 8 intermittent hemodialysis sessions during hospitalization. While in hospital, the dog became deaf, and brainstem auditory evoked response testing revealed absence of waveforms in both ears, consistent with bilateral deafness due to severe cochleotoxicity. After 33 days of hospitalization, the dog was discharged with persistent deafness, confirmed by a second brainstem auditory evoked response.

An outbreak of congenital goiter and chondrodystrophy among calves born to spring-calving beef cows

Elizabeth R. Homerosky, Megan Johnsen, Mei Steinmann, Carling Matejka, Michael J. Jelinski (page 981)

An outbreak of congenital diffuse hyperplastic goiter and chondrodystrophy occurred among spring-born calves at an Angus-based cow-calf operation in southern Alberta. Although these diseases are observed globally in multiple species, reports of their occurrence concurrently are exceptionally rare. A nutritional cause is highly suspected as previous matings between the same sires and dams resulted in apparently normal calves. However, it is unclear if multiple mineral deficiencies manifested as goiter and chondrodystrophy independently or if a primary hypothyroidism inhibited normal fetal growth and skeletal development. This is apparently the first large-scale outbreak of concurrent congenital goiter and chondrodystrophy reported in calves.

Extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction secondary to duodenal foreign bodies in 2 dogs

Jasmine Gu, Sally Sukut, Koji Aoki, Lesley Zwicker (page 985)

Two dogs, a 5-year-old neutered male boxer dog and a 2-year-old neutered male Australian cattle dog, were evaluated for vomiting and inappetence. Both dogs were icteric on physical examination, and had hyperbilirubinemia, elevated liver enzymes, and inflammatory changes on diagnostic blood analysis. A proximal duodenal obstruction causing extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction (EHBDO) was suspected in both cases after diagnostic imaging was performed. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed duodenal foreign bodies in both cases. This case report defines duodenal foreign body as a differential diagnosis for EHBDO in dogs.

Surgical treatment of persistent colic in a horse caused by an anomalous vascularized fibrous band

Rachael K. Needles, Marie-Soleil Dubois (page 991)

This case report documents an unusual case of persistent colic in a horse caused by an anomalous vascularized band of tissue running between the visceral surface of the liver and the mesentery of the large colon at the level of the sternal/diaphragmatic flexures. The horse was presented with a history of exhibiting signs of mild persistent colic that were suspected to be caused by displacement of the large colon. Volvulus of the large colon was identified during exploratory celiotomy. The band of tissue was transected, and the displacement corrected. The horse made an uneventful recovery.

Segmental mandibulectomy as a novel adjunct management strategy for the treatment of an advanced cholesteatoma in a dog

Brittany E. Abrams, Laura E. Selmic, Christina J. Cocca, Vincent A. Wavreille (page 995)

A 6-year-old spayed female Labrador retriever dog was evaluated for trismus and peripheral vestibular syndrome. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a mass arising from the tympanic bulla consistent with a cholesteatoma. A total ear canal ablation, bulla osteotomy, and adjunct segmental mandibulectomy were performed. Re-evaluation 2 weeks after surgery revealed no neurologic abnormalities, normal jaw range of motion, and no discomfort. Despite concern for recurrence of cholesteatoma based on CT imaging performed 33 months after surgery, repeat surgical intervention was not pursued as the owner considered the dog’s comfort level to be satisfactory. The patient continued to do well for the 42-month follow-up period.


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Value our RVTs/Apprécions nos TVA
Melanie Hicks (page 921)


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Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 932)


Practice management software: A 3-horse race/Logiciel de gestion d’un établissement : une course à trois
Chris Doherty (page 1001)


Moving from compassion fatigue to compassion resilience Part 2: Understanding compassion fatigue
Debbie L. Stoewen (page 1004)


Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Marina Leis, Bianca Bauer (page 1007)


Feline indolent ulcers and their significance
Jangi Bajwa (page 1009)


Bovine Pathology: A Text and Color Atlas
Cathy Patterson (page 963)

Remember Me? Loving Care for a Dog with Canine Cognitive Dysfunction
Lea Stogdale (page 989)



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