CVMA | Current Issue

Table of Contents and AbstractsMarch 2019, Vol. 60, No. 3



Use of protective hand shielding by veterinary workers during small animal radiography

Monique N. Mayer, Niels K. Koehncke, Narinder Sidhu, Trevor Gallagher, Cheryl L. Waldner (page 249)

Federal government guidelines recommend wearing hand shielding that provides full protection for the entire hand during manual restraint of animals for radiography. The primary objective of this cross-sectional survey of 143 Saskatchewan veterinary workers was to describe behaviors of workers who do not follow guidelines for effective hand shielding, and to examine the factors associated with these behaviors. An electronic invitation to complete an online questionnaire was sent to 1261 members of the provincial veterinary medical and veterinary technologist associations. More than half of the workers reported that their hand protection was visible on a radiograph at least once a month, and 1/5 reported visible unshielded body parts at least once a month. More than 1/3 of workers never used shielding that fully enclosed their hands. Use of fully enclosing gloves or mittens was more likely for workers in academic workplaces (P < 0.001).

Antimicrobial usage in western Canadian cow-calf herds

Cheryl L. Waldner, Sarah Parker, Sheryl Gow, Devon J. Wilson, John R. Campbell (page 255)

While ongoing surveillance and research initiatives have provided some information on antimicrobial use (AMU) in many livestock commodities, there are no recent reports for Canadian cow-calf herds. Antimicrobial use data were collected in 2014 for bulls, cows, and calves from 100 herds participating in the Western Canadian Cow-Calf Surveillance Network. Lameness was the most common reason for treatment in cows and bulls, with oxytetracycline being the treatment of choice. Herd owners were most likely to treat calves before weaning with florfenicol, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethazine for respiratory disease or diarrhea. The most frequently reported reason for antimicrobial use in weaned calves was respiratory disease and the most reported product was florfenicol. While 98% of herds reported treating ≥ 1 animal with antimicrobials, most cattle did not receive antimicrobials for either treatment or disease prevention on participating cow-calf operations.

Assessment of dog owners' knowledge relating to the diagnosis and treatment of canine food allergies

Siarra Tiffany, Jacqueline M. Parr, James Templeman, Anna K. Shoveller, Rachel Manjos, Anthony Yu, Adronie Verbrugghe (page 268)

Canine food allergies are the result of an immune-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to dietary proteins and can manifest as a variety of dermatologic and/or gastrointestinal clinical signs. Food elimination trials followed by provocation tests are used to diagnose food allergies; however, no research has been conducted to determine whether elimination trials and provocation tests are being properly implemented by pet owners. The objectives of this study were to determine the level of knowledge of dog owners regarding food allergies, and to investigate how dog owners approach diagnosis and treatment with their veterinarians. This information will provide veterinary teams with insight on how to work with dog owners to obtain successful diagnosis and treatment. The results indicate that appropriate diet selection for the food elimination trial, owner education on compliance during the trial, and re-challenging with the previous diet should be the focal points for veterinarians suspecting food allergies in a canine patient.

Sensitivities of a bulk-tank milk ELISA and composite fecal qPCR to detect various seroprevalence levels of paratuberculosis in cattle herds in Normandy, France

Arnaud Delafosse, Eric Meens, Thomas Rambaud, François Hanoy, Hamid Achour (page 275)

This study evaluated an ELISA on bulk tank milk (BTM) samples and a qPCR on a single composite fecal sample to detect paratuberculosis seropositive cattle dairy herds. Individual serum (n = 15 372), BTM and composite fecal samples were obtained from 192 herds. The within-herd apparent seroprevalence was categorized and compared with BTM ELISA and fecal qPCR results. The BTM ELISA had poor overall sensitivity (16%) to detect seropositive herds but higher sensitivity (53%) in the higher apparent seroprevalence group of > 9%. Using an optimized cut-off point (5.0% S/P), sensitivities overall and in the high apparent seroprevalence group were 53% and 88%, respectively. The BTM ELISA gave 5% positive results in seronegative herds and 25% using the optimized cut-off. Fecal qPCR had 72% sensitivity to detect seropositive herds and 88% in the higher apparent seroprevalence group, but gave 25% positive results in fully seronegative herds. The combination of BTM ELISA and composite fecal qPCR improved the sensitivity to detect seropositive herds.

Tissue residue depletion of fenbendazole after oral administration in turkeys

Saad S. Enouri, Michele T. Guerin, Innes G. Wilson, Patricia M. Dowling, Ron J. Johnson (page 282)

The objectives of this study were to determine tissue depletion of fenbendazole in turkeys and estimate a withdrawal interval (WDI). Forty-eight 9-week-old turkeys were fed fenbendazole at 30 mg/kg of feed for 7 consecutive days. Three hens and 3 toms were sacrificed every 2 days from 2 to 16 days post-treatment, and tissues were collected to determine fenbendazole sulfone (FBZ-SO2) concentrations using mass spectrometry. At all timepoints, FBZ-SO2 concentrations in liver and skin-adherent fat were above the limit of quantification (1 ppb), with higher concentrations than those in kidney and muscle. Two turkeys had detectable FBZ-SO2 concentrations in kidney at 16 days. No detectable FBZ-SO2 concentrations were found in muscle at 14 and 16 days. Fenbendazole residues depleted very slowly from the liver and a WDI of at least 39 days should be observed under the conditions of this study, in order to comply with Canadian regulatory agencies.

Adoption of technology and management practices by Canadian cow-calf producers

Murray Jelinski, Reynold Bergen, Brenna Grant, Cheryl Waldner (page 287)

Statistics Canada's 2016 census data were analyzed to determine the proportion of Canadian cow-calf producers who had adopted the use of 7 different technologies and 2 different grazing/feeding management practices, collectively referred to as "management tools." The 4 most commonly used management tools were rotational grazing, in-field winter grazing/feeding, smartphones/tablets, and computers/laptops. Differences in the adoption of these technologies by geographical region, number of producers/operations, herd size, operator gender, and operator age were examined using logistic regression. Estimates of the mean proportion of producers in eastern (65%) and western (60%) Canada using rotational grazing were similar (P = 0.24). However, a greater proportion of producers in western Canada versus eastern Canada were using in-field winter grazing/feeding (P < 0.001), smartphones/tablets (P < 0.001), and computers/laptops (P = 0.002). Adoption of all 4 tools was higher on farm operations with ≥ 2 operators versus those with 1 operator (P < 0.001). Larger herd size was associated with higher adoption rates across all 4 management tools. The effect of gender on adoption rates was equivocal.

Pharmacokinetics of regional limb perfusion using a combination of amikacin and penicillin in standing horses

Roee Dahan, Gil L. Oreff, Amos J. Tatz, Tal Raz, Malka Britzi, Gal Kelmer (page 294)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the compatibility and the pharmacokinetic properties of combined amikacin and penicillin administration by intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) in horses. A tourniquet was applied proximal to the carpus of 7 clinically healthy adult horses and 2 g of amikacin and 10 × 106 IU of penicillin (100 mL total volume) were sequentially injected into the cephalic vein just distal to the tourniquet. Synovial samples were collected from the joint at several times after injection. All samples were analyzed for amikacin and penicillin concentration. The mean maximum concentration (Cmax) of both amikacin and penicillin was over 10-fold the relevant minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for all horses and remained above those MICs for at least 24 hours. The results of this study indicate that combining amikacin with penicillin during IVRLP in normal horses delivers high therapeutic synovial concentrations of both drugs.

Case Reports

An atypical presentation of multi-systemic B-cell lymphoma in a horse

Albert Torrent, Isabelle Kilcoyne, Amanda Johnson, Verena K. Affolter, Emily Berryhill, Monica Aleman (page 300)

This report describes an unusual presentation of multicentric B-cell lymphoma with central and peripheral nerve involvement in a horse that was presented with acute onset, severe, multiple limb lameness, and muscle atrophy. This case highlights the importance of including neoplasia in the differential list in horses presenting for severe limb lameness associated with muscle atrophy, muscle fasciculations, and weakness.

Sex-hormone producing adrenal tumors causing behavioral changes as the sole clinical sign in 3 cats

Julia P. Sumner, Sean E. Hulsebosch, Robert M. Dudley, Meredith L. Miller, Galina M. Hayes (page 305)

Three neutered cats with adrenocortical tumors that were presented with behavioral changes but no evidence of hyperaldosteronism or hypercortisolism are described. All 3 cats had resolution of their clinical signs following adrenalectomy. For neutered cats presenting with behavior changes, a sex-hormone secreting adrenal tumor should be considered as a differential diagnosis.


(page 231)



A peaceful, caring goodbye
Terri Chotowetz
(page 225)


(page 229)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières
(page 237)


Veterinary Antimicrobial Stewardship in Australia
John Prescott
(page 246)


Pemphigus foliaceous
Elizabeth Goodale
(page 311)


Reaching new heights: Results of the 2018 CVMA Practice Owners Economic Survey
Chris Doherty
(page 315)


Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Marina Leis, Bianca Bauer
(page 319)


Comparative Anatomy of the Mouse and the Rat: A Color Atlas and Text
Teresa Bousquet
(page 267)



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