Table of Contents and AbstractsDecember 2017, Vol. 58, No. 12


Review Articles

Viral enteritis in calves

Diego E. Gomez, J. Scott Weese (page 1267)

A complex community of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of calves and play important roles in gut health and disease. The viral component of the microbiome (the virome) is receiving increasing attention for its role in neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). Rotavirus and coronavirus have for a long time been associated with NCD and commercial vaccines have been produced against these agents. Recently, several other viruses which may play a role in diarrhea have been discovered in calf fecal samples, mostly by sequence-based methods. These viruses include torovirus, norovirus, nebovirus, astrovirus, kobuvirus, and enterovirus. Most studies have involved epidemiologic investigations seeking to show association with diarrhea for each virus alone or in combination with potential pathogens. However, determining the contribution of these viruses to calf diarrhea has been challenging and much uncertainty remains concerning their roles as primary pathogens, co-infection agents, or commensals.


Incidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus following a splenectomy in 238 dogs

Lynn C. Maki, Kristina N. Males, Madeline J. Byrnes, Anthony A. El-Saad, George S. Coronado (page 1275)

There is contradicting information in the veterinary literature regarding canine splenectomy and the increased risk for subsequent gastric dilatation-volvulus. The main purpose of this study was to determine the rate of occurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus following splenectomy in medium to large breed dogs compared with a control group undergoing other abdominal procedures. Follow-up was performed by reviewing the medical records and conducting phone interviews. Weight, gender, and presence of a hemoabdomen at the time of surgery were not significantly associated with occurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus, while increasing age was. Ten of 238 (4%) dogs in the splenectomy group and 3/209 (1.4%) dogs in the control group subsequently developed gastric dilatation-volvulus, which was not significantly different (P = 0.08). While the findings approach significance and support a need for future investigation, the current recommendation for gastropexy at time of splenic removal should be made on a case by case basis and while considering previously documented risk factors.

Comparison of surgical time and complication rate of subcutaneous and skin closure using barbed suture or traditional knotted suture in dogs

Laura K. Nutt, Megan L. Wilson, Sherisse Sakals (page 1281)

This prospective study evaluated the handling, intraoperative and postoperative complication rates of a barbed knotless suture for closure of subcutaneous tissue and skin in 17 client-owned dogs (group A) following a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy procedure. Clinical characteristics, surgical time, and complication rates were compared to a control group of 17 client-owned dogs (group B) with subcutaneous tissue and skin closure using traditional suture material. Signalment was not significantly different between groups and did not have an effect on complication rates. Surgical times were not significantly different for subcutaneous tissue or skin closure between the 2 groups. There were significantly more intraoperative complications in the barbed suture group (A: 4/17; B: 0/17; P = 0.033) but no difference in minor or major postoperative complication rates (minor A: 2/16; B: 1/14; P = 0.626, major A: 2/16; B: 0/14; P = 0.171).

Short-term effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease

Andrea Zatelli, Paola D'Ippolito, Xavier Roura, Eric Zini (page 1287)

This retrospective study investigated the impact of amino acid supplementation on body weight, serum albumin, creatinine and urea concentrations, and urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio in proteinuric dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Forty-six client-owned azotemic dogs with spontaneous proteinuric CKD already on a renal diet and in therapy with enalapril were included. After approximately 1 month of treatment (baseline), 29 dogs received oral amino acid supplementation daily (group A) and 17 dogs did not (group B). The parameters under investigation were determined at baseline and after 4 to 8 weeks in both groups. Compared to baseline, body weight and serum albumin increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) at follow-up in group A, but did not change in group B. Serum creatinine concentration did not change in both groups; urea concentration (P < 0.05) and UPC ratio (P < 0.01) decreased in group B, but not in group A. Supplementation with amino acids increased body weight and serum albumin concentration in these dogs but it might have prevented a decrease in proteinuria and urea concentration.

A retrospective study of owner-requested testing as surveillance for equine infectious anemia in Canada (2009–2012)

Sara N. Higgins, Krista J. Howden, Carolyn R. James, Tasha Epp, Katharina L. Lohmann (page 1294)

This retrospective study was undertaken to estimate i) the surveillance coverage for equine infectious anemia (EIA) based on owner-requested testing, and ii) the incidence of case detection from this surveillance activity to inform a review of Canada's national disease control strategy. Based on sample submissions by accredited veterinarians to laboratories CFIA-approved for EIA testing between 2009 and 2012, the estimated national surveillance coverage was 14% for all years, and 72 cases of EIA were detected. The annual national incidence of EIA detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.08 cases/1000 horses. On average, a greater proportion of the horse population was tested in eastern Canada (32%) than in western Canada (6%, P < 0.0001). The cumulative incidence of EIA detection was higher in western Canada (0.25 cases/1000 horses) than in eastern Canada (0.02 cases/1000 horses, P < 0.0001). This study identified regional differences in owner-requested EIA testing and case detection resulting from this testing activity.

Effects of probiotic VSL#3 on glomerular filtration rate in dogs affected by chronic kidney disease: A pilot study

Ilaria Lippi, Francesca Perondi, Gianila Ceccherini, Veronica Marchetti, Grazia Guidi (page 1301)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic VSL#3 on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). The treatment group (n = 30) received prescription renal diet and probiotic VSL#3 (112 to 225 × 109 lyophilized bacteria per 10 kg body weight, PO, q24h for 2 months); the control group (n = 30) received prescription renal diet and standard therapy. All dogs underwent GFR measurement at the beginning of the study (T0) and were re-evaluated by GFR measurement after 2 months (T1). The GFR was significantly higher (P = 0.0001) in the treatment group compared to the control group at T1. In the treatment group, the GFR was significantly higher (P = 0.0008) at T1 compared to T0. In the control group, the GFR was significantly lower (P = 0.001) at T1 compared to T0. VSL#3 supplementation seemed to be efficient in reducing deterioration of GFR over time in dogs affected by CKD.

Case Reports

Atypical hypocalcemia in 2 dairy cows, after having been fed discarded vegetable cooking oil

Allan J. Gunn, Angel Abuelo (page 1306)

Two mid-lactation dairy cows were presented sternally recumbent 4 days after the herd had been fed discarded vegetable cooking oil ad libitum. In both affected animals hypocalcemia was confirmed by clinical chemistry and response to treatment. This atypical presentation of hypocalcemia associated with feeding discarded cooking oil is previously unreported.

Inguinal herniation of a mineralized paraprostatic cyst in a dog

Kyle P. Vititoe, Federico Vilaplana Grosso, Stephanie Thomovsky, Chee Kin Lim, Hock Gan Heng (page 1309)

A firm mass was noted in the right inguinal subcutaneous region of an 11-year-old intact male Labrador retriever dog presented for right pelvic limb weakness. Pelvic radiographs showed 2 large ovoid structures with circumferential thin eggshell-like mineralization in the right external inguinal region. The structures were confirmed sonographically, and on magnetic resonance imaging as a large folded herniated mineralized paraprostatic cyst through a defect in the right inguinal wall. To the author's knowledge, this is the first published report of an inguinal herniated mineralized paraprostatic cyst.

Severe upper airway obstruction following bilateral ventral bulla osteotomy in a cat

Chiara De Gennaro, Enzo Vettorato, Federico Corletto (page 1313)

A cat that underwent bilateral ventral bulla osteotomy (VBO) for treatment of otitis media and otitis interna secondary to bilateral inflammatory polyps, developed upper airway obstruction (UAO) soon after tracheal extubation. The cat was re-intubated but the UAO did not resolve at the next extubation. Eventually, tracheostomy was performed. Upper airway obstruction is a potential postoperative complication of bilateral VBO in cats.

Brief Communications

Is there an application for wireless capsule endoscopy in horses?

Julia B. Montgomery, Jose L. Bracamonte, Mohammad Wajih Alam, Alimul H. Khan, Shahed K. Mohammed, Khan A. Wahid (page 1321)

This pilot study assessed wireless capsule endoscopy in horses. Image transmission was achieved with good image quality. Time to exit the stomach was variable and identified as one limitation, together with gaps in image transmission, capsule tumbling, and inability to accurately locate the capsule. Findings demonstrate usefulness and current limitations.

Student Paper

Unusual case of pyometra in a bichon frise dog

Katherine Malik (page 1326)

An intact female bichon frise dog with anorexia and chronic vaginal discharge, was clinically diagnosed with an open pyometra upon workup and ovariohysterectomy. Two cystic structures were identified protruding from the uterine body and the wall appeared thickened. Histopathology revealed pyometra, cystic endometria hyperplasia, and adenomyosis with squamous metaplasia.


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One health and a new Canadian vet school?
Carlton Gyles (page 1249)


(page 1253)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 1259)


One Health and the expansion of veterinary education and practice in Canada
N. Ole Nielsen (page 1317)


Human-animal emotional contagion and client communication
Myrna Milani (page 1329)


Avian Medicine, 3rd edition
Savannah Howse (page 1318)



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