Table of Contents and AbstractsJanuary 2018, Vol. 59, No. 1


Case Reports

Acute surgical intervention for a depressed skull fracture causing a laceration to the brain parenchyma from a bite wound in a dog

Natasha Hodgson, Andrea Walters, Corinne Lawson, Devon Hague, Stephen Joslyn, Maureen McMichael (page 31)

A 5-month-old spayed female mixed breed dog was attacked by another dog causing multiple fractures of the left calvarium with a fragment penetrating through the gray matter of the parietal lobe. Surgery was performed to remove the bone fragment. A 6-month follow-up showed dramatic improvement in neurologic status.

Dietary imbalances in a large breed puppy, leading to compression fractures, vitamin D deficiency, and suspected nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism

Moran Tal, Jacqueline M. Parr, Shawn MacKenzie, Adronie Verbrugghe (page 36)

A 6-month-old intact female giant schnauzer dog fed a nutritionally unbalanced homemade diet was evaluated because of a 1-month history of lameness and difficulty walking. Abnormalities identified on ancillary tests, in conjunction with the dog's clinical improvement following diet change, suggested a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency and nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. This report underlines the importance of appropriate feeding management, especially during the vulnerable growth phase.

Can Ureaplasma diversum be transmitted from donor to recipient through the embryo? Two case reports outlining U. diversum losses in bovine embryo pregnancies

M. Bronwyn Crane, Colleen A. Hughes (page 43)

Two bovine embryo recovery results are outlined from different herds. Both cases involve significant late gestational loss from embryos relating back to a single donor. Ureaplasma diversum was confirmed in 3 of 4 cases submitted for postmortem examination. Natural infection originating from the donor and transmitted to the recipient has not previously been documented.

Hybrid surgical treatment for 2 feline cases of intrahepatic shunt

Akiko Uemura, Telma Mary Nakata, Ryou Tanaka (page 47)

Intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was encountered in 2 cats (10 and 5 months old) exhibiting neurological symptoms and general deterioration. Both cats were treated with coil embolization using a hybrid surgical technique combining conventional open surgery and interventional radiology techniques, achieving good postoperative outcomes (follow-up: 22 and 10 months, respectively).


Babesia odocoilei as a cause of mortality in captive cervids in Canada

Amélie Mathieu, Adriana R. Pastor, Charlene N. Berkvens, Carolyn Gara-Boivin, Michel Hébert, Alexandre N. Léveillé, John R. Barta, Dale A. Smith (page 52)

Nine cases of fatal infection with Babesia odocoilei were confirmed in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) housed in zoological institutions located in southern Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba, Canada between 2013 and 2016. All animals died of a hemolytic crisis. Frequent postmortem findings were extensive hemorrhage, pigmenturia, and intrahepatic cholestasis. The described ante- and postmortem signs are consistent with those of previously reported cases in the United States. Diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by polymerase chain reaction performed on DNA extracted from whole blood or frozen spleen. We propose that babesiosis is an emerging disease of cervids in multiple Canadian provinces, most likely as a result of climate change and the northward range expansion of Ixodes scapularis, the primary tick vector for B. odocoilei. The role of captive animals as sentinels for wildlife health is also highlighted.

A clinical trial investigating the impact of in-feed flavophospholipol on Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance in pigs

Saranya Nair, Abdolvahab Farzan, Terri L. O'Sullivan, Robert M. Friendship (page 59)

A clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of in-feed flavophospholipol in reducing Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Pigs were obtained from a farm with a history of salmonellosis and were housed at a research facility. Over the span of 10 weeks the pigs received either a feed containing 4 ppm of flavophospholipol (treatment, n = 25) or a non-medicated feed (control, n = 20). Weekly fecal samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella and generic E. coli. A subset of Salmonella and E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to compare the prevalence of Salmonella shedding and AMR in Salmonella and E. coli isolates in treatment and control groups. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella shedding (P > 0.05) and AMR in Salmonella (P > 0.01) and E. coli (P > 0.005) isolates was not different between the treatment and control groups.

Comparison of hand-sewn and oversewn stapled jejunojejunal anastomoses in horses

José L. Bracamonte, Ian Devick, Keri L. Thomas, Steven Hendrick (page 67)

The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of hand-sewn jejunojejunal anastomoses to those of oversewn stapled jejunojejunal anastomoses. Jejunojejunal anastomoses were constructed from harvested jejunal segments using a single-layer Lembert technique (1HS), double-layer simple continuous/Cushing technique (2HS), stapled side-to-side technique oversewn with Cushing pattern (SS), and closed 1-stage stapled functional end-to-end technique oversewn with Cushing pattern (FEE). Anastomosed segments were distended with fluid until the point of biomechanical failure. The 2HS had the longest construction time of all anastomoses. Bursting pressures were significantly higher for hand-sewn jejunojejunostomies than those for oversewn stapled jejunojejunostomies. No significant differences were found in bursting pressures between 1HS and 2HS or between SS and FEE. Hand-sewn jejunojejunostomies proved to be biomechanically stronger than oversewn stapled jejunojejunostomies when initially constructed. However, all anastomotic types would be secure techniques to be used clinically based on the supraphysiological pressures they are capable of withstanding.

Review Articles

Brucella canis: An update on research and clinical management

Kevin L. Cosford (page 74)

In Canada, Brucella canis remains a potentially devastating infectious agent that is still considered uncommon, despite the increasing international movement of dogs. There may be a growing risk to the Canadian canine population due to a reliance on outdated seroprevalence studies and the lack of federal regulation. With the complex diagnostic and management challenges associated with Brucella canis, a One Health approach is necessary to address the need for ongoing research, including updating canine and human seroprevalence rates in Canada, elucidating the pathogenesis, and determining the most appropriate treatment and prevention strategies. Clinical management decisions are often complicated by currently available treatment protocols, and health risks to both canine and human populations. This article integrates recent research focusing on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of Brucella canis, and outlines current clinical management approaches.

Student Paper

Acute sternal subluxation in an indoor cat

Louise Lam (page 82)

A 1-year-old spayed female cat was presented with tachypnea and a protrusion on the ventral thorax. Radiography revealed ventral sternal subluxation between the 6th and 7th sternebrae. There was no evidence of respiratory distress, even after follow-up, and a conservative management approach was successful in this healthy, young, indoor cat.


(page 19)



Food Animal Abuse Not Widespread
Dennis Will (page 9)


Update on CVMA activities to support responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial drugs
Troye McPherson (page 13)


(page 17)


Developments in small animal veterinary dermatology
Kinga Gortel (page 85)


Managing your purchases? Get out your calculator!
Darren Osborne (page 89)


Seroconversion does not a reservoir host make: No scientific proof to date that dogs are a reservoir for Zika virus
Kenneth Kim (page 93)


Zoonotic Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium bovis and Other Pathogenic Mycobacteria, 3rd edition
Judy Hodge (page 58)

Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 4th edition
Stella Wheatley (page 73)



(page 65)


(page 66, 84)


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