Table of Contents and AbstractsJuly 2017, Vol. 81, No. 3


Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pig meat

Philippe Raymond, Christian Bellehumeur, Malliga Nagarajan, Diane Longtin, Alexandra Ferland, Peter Müller, Rachel Bissonnette, Carole Simard (page 162)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, caused by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is an economically important disease in the swine industry. Previous studies demonstrated the presence of the virus in pig meat and its transmissibility by oral consumption. This study further analyzed the infectivity of PRRSV in commercial pig meat. Fresh bottom meat pieces (n = 1500) randomly selected over a period of 2 y from a pork ham boning plant located in Quebec, Canada, were tested by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Each trimmed meat was stored in the plant freezer, subsampled weekly for up to 15 wk, and tested with quantitative RT-PCR to determine the viral load. Meat infectivity was evaluated using specific pathogen-free piglets, each fed with approximately 500 g of meat at the end of the storage time. Genotype-specific RT-PCR confirmed the presence of PRRSV mainly during cold weather in 0.73% of the fresh meat pieces. Wild and vaccine strains of genotype 2 were detected. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleic acid was stable in meat stored at around -20°C during the 15 wk. Serological and molecular analysis showed the transmission of infection by a majority of PRRSV positive meat pieces (5/9) fed orally to naïve recipients. The results confirmed a low prevalence of PRRSV in market's pig meat, and virus transmissibility by oral consumption to naïve recipients even after several weeks of storage in a commercial freezer. It occurred mainly with meat harboring the highest PRRSV RNA copies, in the range of 109 copies per 500 g of meat, with both wild type and vaccine-related strains.

Development of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) open reading frame 2 DNA vaccine with different adjuvants and comparison with commercial PCV2 subunit vaccine in an experimental challenge

Changhoon Park, Jiwoon Jeong, Kyuhyung Choi, Su-Jin Park, Ikjae Kang, Chanhee Chae (page 171)

The objective of this study was to compare the protection against challenge with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) induced by an experimental vaccine based on open reading frame (ORF) 2 of PCV2 DNA plus an adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide, cobalt oxide, or liposome) and a commercial PCV2 subunit vaccine. A total of 35 colostrum-fed, cross-bred, conventional piglets were randomly divided into 7 groups. The commercial vaccine was more efficacious against PCV2 challenge than the 4 experimental vaccines according to immunologic, virologic, and pathological outcomes. The pigs inoculated with the experimental vaccine containing the liposome adjuvant had significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of neutralizing antibodies and interferon-γ-secreting cells, and significantly lower levels (P < 0.05) of PCV2 viremia than the pigs inoculated with the other experimental vaccines. The pigs inoculated with the experimental vaccines containing either the liposome adjuvant or the cobalt oxide adjuvant had significantly lower lymphoid lesion scores (P < 0.05) than the pigs in the group inoculated with the PCV2 DNA vaccine dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline. Liposome proved to be a potent adjuvant that efficiently enhanced both humoral and cellular immune responses induced by the PCV2 DNA vaccine.

Retrospective study of the relationship of Torque teno sus virus 1a and Torque teno sus virus 1b with porcine circovirus associated disease

Alejandro Vargas-Ruiz, Hugo Ramírez-Álvarez, José I. Sánchez-Betancourt, Víctor Quintero-Ramírez, Ignacio C. Rangel-Rodríguez, Joel A. Vázquez-Perez, Lucia A. García-Camacho (page 178)

Genus Iotatorquevirus consists of 2 species, Torque teno sus virus 1a and Torque teno sus virus 1b, which are ubiquitous in swine populations, and are widely reported in association with porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD). To evaluate the relationship with PCVAD, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were used to detect both Iotatorquevirus species by nested PCR and sequencing. Sixty-eight PCVAD cases were selected as well as 32 porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) non-affected cases. Overall, 33 of the 100 cases were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1a and 8 of 100 were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1b. Only 24 of 68 (35%) PCVAD cases were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1a; 39% (9/23) of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and 33% (15/45) of PCV2-associated reproductive failure cases. Among PCV2 non-affected cases, 28% were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1a and 6% were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1b. Torque teno sus virus 1b was not detected in PCV2-associated reproductive failure cases. Regardless of the PCV2-status, a lower frequency of both Iotatorquevirus species was found than depicted in other reports and there was no statistical relationship with PCVAD (χ2 < 0.01). Given the worldwide genomic variability of Iotatorquevirus species, it is feasible that species prevalent in Mexico share a lower nucleotide sequence identity, leading to different pathogenic potential.

Identification of the linear ligand epitope on classical swine fever virus that interacts with porcine kidney 15 cells

Yin Mei, Feng Yue, Hong-mei Ning, Juan-juan Zhou, Xuan-nian Wang (page 186)

Binding of the viral ligand to a specific receptor is the first step of virus entry into target cells. The envelope proteins Erns, E1, and E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are involved in the interaction with host cell receptors to mediate CSFV infection. The aim of this investigation was to identify epitopes that bind to porcine kidney (PK)-15 cells to prevent CSFV infection. Ten peptides representing Erns, E1, and E2 were synthesized. Immunohistochemical study showed that the SE24 peptide, which is derived from the E2 amino acid sequence, could effectively bind to PK-15 cells. Similarly, a flow cytometry assay demonstrated that SE24 binding to PK-15 cells could be blocked by CSFV. The binding of SE24 with PK-15 cells leads to decreased CSFV infection of PK-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential new strategy for the prevention and control of CSFV infection that requires further investigation.

Direct repeat unit (dru) typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs in Atlantic Canada

Matthew E. Saab, J. Scott Weese, J.T. McClure (page 192)

There are few reports investigating the characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs in Canada and none from Atlantic Canada. The objectives of this study were to strain type MRSP isolates cultured at a regional diagnostic laboratory using direct repeat unit (dru) typing and to describe their antimicrobial resistance profiles. Ninety-four isolates recovered from dogs between 2010 and 2012 had dru typing, cluster analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing done. The majority of isolates belonged to type dt11a (30.9%), dt10h (24.5%), dt9a (18.1%), and dt11af (10.6%) with the remaining 15.9% of isolates distributed among 13 dru types. The predominant dru types identified were similar in Ontario; however, cluster 9a appears to be less common in Atlantic Canada. A significant difference in the distribution of clusters among Atlantic provinces was detected (P = 0.01). Resistance to ≥ 2 non-β-lactam antimicrobials was observed in 71.4% of the isolates. The MRSP isolates from this study were notably less resistant than those reported in the literature. A more comprehensive study of the MRSP dru types could help further elucidate the distribution of this pathogen in Canada.

The impact of carboplatin and toceranib phosphate on serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels and survival in canine osteosarcoma

Tracy L. Gieger, Julie Nettifee-Osborne, Briana Hallman, Chad Johannes, Dawn Clarke, Michael W. Nolan, Laurel E. Williams (page 199)

In this pilot study, 10 dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA) were treated with amputation and subsequent carboplatin chemotherapy (300 mg/m2 IV q3wk × 4 doses) followed by toceranib phosphate (2.75 mg/kg PO q48h starting at day 14 post carboplatin). Monthly clinical monitoring and serum measurements of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were acquired. No dogs were removed from the study due to toxicity. Levels of VEGF and MMP-9 did not change over time. Seven dogs died related to local recurrence and/or pulmonary or bone metastasis and the remainder died of other causes. Median OSA-free survival was 238 d with 34% 1-year progression-free survival. Median overall survival was 253 d with 30% alive at 1.5 y and 10% alive at 2 y. Although this regimen was well-tolerated, survival times did not exceed previously published data from dogs treated with amputation plus chemotherapy alone.

Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs

Sara Sechi, Filippo Fiore, Francesca Chiavolelli, Corrado Dimauro, Anna Nudda, Raffaella Cocco (page 206)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in amylase values in the CD group (P < 0.01). At the end of this period, groups were crossed over and fed for another 18 wk. A significant decrease in amylase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) values was observed in the CD and SD group, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a controlled, balanced antioxidant diet may be a valid approach to restoring good cell metabolism and neutralizing excess free radicals in therapy dogs.

Evaluation of transmission infrared spectroscopy and digital and optical refractometers to identify low immunoglobulin G concentrations in alpaca serum

Ibrahim Elsohaby, Jennifer J. Burns, Christopher B. Riley, J. Trenton McClure (page 217)

This study aimed to evaluate the digital Brix and optical serum total protein (STP) refractometers for measuring concentrations of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in alpacas and compare them to IgG concentrations measured by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. The appropriate cutoff point for Brix and STP refractometers and the transmission infrared (TIR) spectroscopy method was determined for low IgG concentrations (< 10 g/L). Serum samples were collected from alpacas (N = 169) and tested by both refractometers. The correlation between Brix % and STP was high [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.99]. However, the correlation coefficients between Brix % and STP with serum RID-IgG concentrations were only 0.56 and 0.55, respectively. Twenty-one (12.4%) of 169 alpaca serum samples had IgG concentrations of < 10 g/L. Using receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, the optimal cutoff points for the TIR assay, digital Brix, and optical STP refractometers for assessing low IgG (RID < 10 g/L) were 13 g/L, 8.8%, and 50 g/L, respectively. The TIR assay showed higher sensitivity (Se = 95.2%) and specificity (Sp = 96.8%) than either the digital Brix (Se = 90.5% and Sp = 65.5%) or optical STP (Se = 81% and Sp = 73.7%) refractometers for assessing alpacas with low IgG. In conclusion, the Brix and STP refractometers lack accuracy in measuring alpaca IgG concentrations, but may be useful for screening animals for low serum IgG. However, the TIR assay with a cutoff point of 13 g/L was more appropriate for identifying low IgG than either refractometer. Another study that focuses on neonatal crias is recommended in order to evaluate the usefulness of these assays for field diagnosing of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI).

Cystic duct pressures after ligation with a novel absorbable device in an ex vivo caprine cholecystectomy model

Andrea J. Sundholm Tepper, Odd V. Höglund, Bonnie G. Campbell, Chi-Ya Chen, Boel A. Fransson (page 223)

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard of care in human medicine for gall bladder disease. Although infrequently reported in veterinary literature, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an option for uncomplicated gall bladder disease in canine patients. Due to the risk of cystic duct ligature slippage or clip dislodgement, we wanted to explore the use of a LigaTie; a novel absorbable medical device modeled after a cable tie. Our object was to describe the use of the LigaTie in a caprine cadaveric study of cholecystectomies as a model for canine patients and demonstrate the leak pressure of the cystic duct compared with cholecystectomies performed with 2 large endoscopic hemoclips. Samples of caprine gall bladder, liver, and cystic duct were collected. The cystic duct was ligated with either 2 large endoscopic hemoclips or a LigaTie. Maximum cystic duct pressure was recorded. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the maximum cystic duct pressure achieved for cystic ducts ligated with 2 large endoscopic hemoclips or the LigaTie (P = 0.865). No leakage was observed from the cystic duct, hemoclip, or LigaTie site in either group. Supraphysiologic pressures were achieved in both groups and high pressure occlusion of the infusion pump determined the maximum intraluminal pressure achieved. Based on these results, the LigaTie may provide advantages in minimally invasive surgery, especially when considering ligation of a friable or thickened cystic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Future in vivo studies are warranted to determine minimally invasive maneuverability, tissue interaction, complications, and outcomes.

Brief Communications

Evaluation of serum symmetric dimethylarginine in dogs with heartworm infection

Bom-Sul Choi, Hyeongsun Moon, Sang-IL Suh, Changbaig Hyun (page 228)

This study evaluated the circulating levels of serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in 12 dogs with different severities of heartworm disease (HWD) and assessed the biochemical renal markers (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine). Dogs were classified into 2 groups based on the severity of clinical signs. Group A — asymptomatic to mild clinical signs, group B — moderate to severe clinical signs. The serum SDMA levels were higher in dogs in group B. Although the serum SDMA levels in dogs in group A were also higher than those of the control dogs, the difference was not statistically significant. There was a good correlation between renal markers and severity of clinical signs. This study demonstrated that the glomerular filtration rate was significantly decreased in dogs in group A; therefore, earlier detection of renal impairment is required for successful management of dogs with HWD.

Maternal and fetal arterial blood gas data in normotensive, singleton, isoflurane anesthetized sheep at 124–126 days of gestation

Claire M. Loughran, Matthew W. Kemp, Gabrielle C. Musk (page 231)

The aim of this case series was to describe the differences between maternal and fetal blood-gas results during anesthesia. Sixteen singleton adult merino ewes weighing 60.1 ± 5.1 kg at 125.7 d (124 to 126 d) gestation were anesthetized. Maternal (radial) and fetal (umbilical) arterial blood gas samples were collected 79 ± 6 min after the start of anesthesia if maternal mean arterial pressure (MAP) was stable and > 65 mmHg. Fetal pH, partial arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), glucose, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2), sodium, and chloride were significantly lower and fetal partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), lactate, hematocrit, total hemoglobin, potassium, and calcium were significantly higher than maternal blood-gas values. Fetal pH, PaO2, and BE were lower and fetal lactate was higher than fetal umbilical arterial samples previously reported, which may indicate a non-reassuring fetal status. Further refinement of the ovine experimental model is warranted with fetal monitoring during maternal anesthesia.

Towards an improved estimate of antimicrobial use in animals: Adjusting the "population correction unit" calculation

Brian R. Radke (page 235)

International comparisons of animal antimicrobial use (AMU) have typically been based on total national estimates of antimicrobials sales standardized by the national animal biomass calculated as the population correction unit (PCU). The objective of this paper was to compare the currently accepted PCU calculation with that of the adjusted population correction unit (APCU), which re-evaluates the standard animal weights used in the calculation and accounts for animal lifespan. The APCU calculation resulted in substantial changes to the 2009 national biomass estimates for cattle, pigs, and poultry in 8 European countries and Canada. The estimated national biomass for cattle increased 35% to 43%, while the estimated national biomass of pigs and poultry typically decreased by approximately 51% and 87%, respectively. Among the 9 countries, the total national APCU ranged from an increase of 1% to a decrease of 40% relative to PCU, and these differences were statistically significant. Adjusted population correction unit is preferred over PCU in comparing and contrasting AMU among animals with different lifespans because it is more transparently derived and is a reasonable approximation of the animal biomass at risk of antimicrobial treatment.