Table of Contents and AbstractsApril 2017, Vol. 58, No. 4



Use of an elastic transarticular external fixator construct for immobilization of the elbow joint

Bertrand Vedrine (page 353)

Transarticular external skeletal fixation usually involves rigid bars that result in a stable but stiff joint. This study describes the technique and the outcome of an elastic transarticular external fixator (ETEF) applied to the elbow joint. Four cases of elbow luxation with collateral ligament injuries were managed with closed reduction and application of an ETEF to maintain the reduction. A triceps tendon avulsion was surgically managed before applying an ETEF. The clinical outcome was considered excellent in 2 cats, good in 2 dogs (1 elbow luxation and the avulsion of the triceps tendon), and poor in 1 dog presented for elbow luxation and a permanent neurological defect. The procedure was rapid, easy to perform, and inexpensive. All animals except the one with a neurological defect had an early return to weight bearing. This method maintains extension of the joint while permitting its motion thereby promoting rehabilitation.

Determining bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infections in dairy cattle using precolostral blood

Paul Baillargeon, Juan C. Arango-Sabogal, Vincent Wellemans, Gilles Fecteau (page 360)

The objective of this study was to determine if precolostral blood samples are useful to detect apparent fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) viruses. A convenience sample of 317 sera from 50 Canadian herds was used in the study. Antibody level was measured using 2 commercial IBR and BVD ELISA kits. Precolostral status of sera was confirmed on 304 samples using serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Postcolostral serum samples yielded a higher proportion of positive results to IBR (OR = 86; 95% CI: 17.8 to 415.7) and BVD (OR = 199.3; 95% CI: 41.7 to 952.3) than did precolostral samples. All positive precolostral serum samples (n = 7 of 304) originated from calves born to vaccinated cows. Postcolostral positive serum samples (n = 11 of 13) originated mostly (60%) from calves born to non-vaccinated cows. Precolostral serum sampling can detect apparent fetal infections in a herd.

Pregnancy per AI in Holstein heifers inseminated with sex-selected or conventional semen after estrus detection or timed-AI

Marcos G. Colazo, Reuben J. Mapletoft (page 365)

This study compared pregnancy per AI (P/AI) of heifers inseminated with sex-selected or conventional semen after estrus detection (ED) or timed-AI (TAI). Heifers in the ED group received 2 treatments with prostaglandin F2α 14 d apart and those in the TAI group received a modified 5-day Co-synch protocol plus an intravaginal progesterone releasing insert device (PRID) and were inseminated 72 h after PRID removal. Overall P/AI were 69.2% (74/107) and 64.1% (75/117) for conventional and sex-selected semen (P > 0.05). Although P/AI in ED heifers following the use of conventional semen were numerically higher (75.0% versus 63.6%), P/AI with sex-selected semen were almost identical (65.0% versus 63.2%) for ED and TAI heifers. Pregnancy losses from first pregnancy diagnosis to term did not differ between ED and TAI heifers (6.0% versus 11.3%). In summary, heifers subjected to TAI with sex-selected semen following the application of a modified 5-day Co-synch plus PRID protocol had acceptable P/AI.

Hematology and biochemistry reference intervals for Ontario commercial nursing pigs close to the time of weaning

Amanda M. Perri, Terri L. O'Sullivan, John C.S. Harding, R. Darren Wood, Robert M. Friendship (page 371)

The evaluation of pig hematology and biochemistry parameters is rarely done largely due to the costs associated with laboratory testing and labor, and the limited availability of reference intervals needed for interpretation. Within-herd and between-herd biological variation of these values also make it difficult to establish reference intervals. Regardless, baseline reference intervals are important to aid veterinarians in the interpretation of blood parameters for the diagnosis and treatment of diseased swine. The objective of this research was to provide reference intervals for hematology and biochemistry parameters of 3-week-old commercial nursing piglets in Ontario. A total of 1032 pigs lacking clinical signs of disease from 20 swine farms were sampled for hematology and iron panel evaluation, with biochemistry analysis performed on a subset of 189 randomly selected pigs. The 95% reference interval, mean, median, range, and 90% confidence intervals were calculated for each parameter.

Cuttable plate fixation for small breed dogs with radius and ulna fractures: Retrospective study of 31 dogs

Gwyneth K. Watrous, Noel M.M. Moens (page 377)

This retrospective study evaluated complication rates for radius and ulna fractures in small breed dogs in which 1.5 mm to 2.7 mm cuttable bone plates were used for internal fixation. The medical records of all cases from 2004 to 2011 that were presented to our clinic were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: dogs with body weight < 9 kg, fracture of the radius and ulna with open reduction, and internal fixation utilizing a cuttable bone plate. Thirty-four fractures in 31 dogs met the inclusion criteria. Of 25 dogs that were available for follow-up, all achieved union, minor complications occurred in 9, and major complications occurred in 8. External coaptation was responsible for complications in 8 cases and the need for coaptation needs to be investigated. Excluding minor complications, 32% of patients required at least 1 additional surgery or additional hospitalization. All but 2 of the dogs returned to full function. The 1.5 mm straight plate was successfully used in all dogs with a body weight of 0.9 to 2.6 kg.

Case Reports

Pneumatosis coli in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

Cédric B. Larouche, Marion R. Desmarchelier, Swan Specchi, Isabelle Langlois (page 383)

A 4-year-old spayed female ferret was presented with acute diarrhea and partial anorexia. Pneumatosis coli and segmental enteropathy were identified by ultrasonography and radiography. Fecal culture did not identify any pathogenic bacteria. Medical management of concurrent diseases and antibiotic therapy resulted in resolution of clinical signs and pneumatosis coli.

Complete longitudinal patellar fracture in a cat: A rare case

Gregory D. Herndon (page 387)

Longitudinal patellar fractures in cats are extremely rare with only 1 other report of a comminuted longitudinal fracture for which pins and wires were placed in the patella for stabilization. This report describes the surgery and outcome of a strictly longitudinal patellar fracture in a cat.

Primary intranasal melanoma with brain invasion in a dog

Julie Lemetayer, Ahmad Al-Dissi, Kim Tryon, Valerie MacDonald-Dickinson (page 391)

A 6-year-old castrated male boxer dog with right-sided dark purulent nasal discharge and acute bilateral blindness was diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and then on necropsy with primary nasal malignant melanoma that extended into the brain, as well as concurrent ocular melanosis. There was no evidence of metastasis in other organs.

Brief Communications

Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii seropositivity in small ruminant veterinarians and veterinary students in Ontario, Canada

Shannon L. Meadows, Andria Jones-Bitton, Scott A. McEwen, Jocelyn Jansen, Samir N. Patel, Catherine Filejski, Paula Menzies (page 397)

Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen that causes Q fever in humans. Serological and questionnaire data on C. burnetii were obtained from 32 small ruminant veterinarians and veterinary students in Ontario, Canada, in February 2012. Overall, 59% of participants were seropositive; advanced stage of career and increased age were associated with seropositivity.

Student Paper

A case of feline ectopic abdominal fetuses secondary to trauma

Andrew Chong (page 400)

A multiparous adult cat with a history of prior trauma but no presenting clinical signs was admitted for routine ovariohysterectomy. Uterine abnormalities indicative of trauma were found in addition to 2 ectopic fetuses wrapped in omentum. The ovariohysterectomy was completed and the ectopic fetuses were removed. Recovery was uneventful.


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Journal impact
Carlton Gyles (page 329)


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Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 339)


The creation of the Department of Population Medicine at the Ontario Veterinary College
Kevin Woodger, Elizabeth Stone, Cate Dewey (page 403)


Cold-call communication
Myrna Milani (page 411)


Recognize value
Dr. Marc Philippot (page 413)


Mosby's Comprehensive Review for Veterinary Technicians, 4th edition
Shannon Wheatley (page 396)

Review Questions and Answers for Veterinary Technicians, 4th edition
Shannon Wheatley (page 396)



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