Table of Contents and AbstractsNovember 2017, Vol. 58, No. 11


Case Reports

Pyloric obstruction due to massive eosinophilic infiltration in a young adult dog

Alexandros O. Konstantinidis, Mathios E. Mylonakis, Dimitra Psalla, Nectarios Soubasis, Dimitrios Papadimitriou, Timoleon S. Rallis (page 1164)

A 16-month-old dog was presented with chronic vomiting, anorexia, progressive weight loss, and melena. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a massive pyloric eosinophilic infiltration leading to pyloric obstruction that was treated successfully with pylorectomy. This is a novel clinical presentation of eosinophilic gastritis and highlights the need to consider it as a differential diagnosis for pyloric obstruction.

Diastolic heart failure associated with hemangiosarcoma infiltrating left ventricular walls in a dog

Tatsuyuki Osuga, Kensuke Nakamura, Tomoya Morita, Yumiko Kagawa, Hiroshi Ohta, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi (page 1167)

A 9-year-old Shetland sheepdog was diagnosed with cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Echocardiography revealed focally thickened left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum and left atrial dilation. Left ventricular systolic function was preserved. Doppler echocardiography of transmitral flow indicated restrictive left ventricular filling. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated hemangiosarcoma infiltrating the left ventricular walls.

Presumptive chronic pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in 2 pygmy goats due to ingestion of tansy ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) in southwestern British Columbia

Heather Anholt, Ann Britton (page 1171)

Two pygmy goats from a herd of 3 animals in British Columbia died within 24 hours of exhibiting lethargy. Histopathology revealed liver failure and tansy ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) was discovered in the goats' pasture. Goats are typically resistant to the toxic effects of tansy ragwort. This is the first report of presumed tansy ragwort toxicity in goats in North America.

Long-term outcomes following plate stabilization to address spontaneous luxation of the long digital extensor tendon of origin in 2 dogs

Michelle M.M. Hasiuk, Kevin A. Drygas, Daniel D. Lewis (page 1176)

Two dogs with spontaneous luxation of the long digital extensor tendon of origin were managed by performing a sulcoplasty and applying a plate bridging the extensor sulcus. Lameness resolved and neither dog had recurrence of lameness 59 and 15 months following surgery.


Development of a minimally invasive approach to equine cervical articular facet joints for placement of an ND:YAG LASER

Tara R. Shearer, Marc A. Kinsley, Anthony P. Pease, Jon S. Patterson (page 1181)

The purpose of this study was to develop a minimally invasive approach to equine cervical articular facet joints for application of an ND:YAG LASER and to evaluate the effects of the laser fiber on the surrounding tissue. Under general anesthesia, an ND:YAG LASER was used to apply 2000 J of energy to 5 cervical articular facet joints in 3 horses (15 joints total). Horses were euthanized and the cervical facets and spinal cords were examined grossly and histologically. Gross pathology of the articular facets revealed evidence of articular cartilage charring and diffuse roughening of the surface. Histopathology confirmed coagulative necrosis. This novel technique allowed access to the cervical articular facet joints with the ND:YAG LASER and has the potential to allow performance of a minimally invasive facilitated ankylosis procedure. Further validation in sedated, standing horses is required to establish safety and efficacy of this technique.

Evaluation of the sterility of single-dose medications used in a multiple-dose fashion

Elizabeth P. Martin, Jean Mukherjee, Claire R. Sharp, Virginia B. Sinnott-Stutzman (page 1187)

Bacterial proliferation was evaluated in single-dose medications used in a multi-dose fashion and when medications were intentionally inoculated with bacteria. Of 5 experimentally punctured medications, 1 of 75 vials (50% dextrose) became contaminated. When intentionally inoculated, hydroxyethyl starch and heparinized saline supported microbial growth. Based on these findings, it is recommended that hydroxyethyl starch and heparinized saline not be used in a multi-dose fashion.

Ovariohysterectomy requires more post-operative analgesia than orchiectomy in dogs and cats

Carolina Quarterone, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna, Nadia Crosignani, Flávia Augusta de Oliveira, Carlize Lopes, Alfredo Feio da Maia Lima, Antonio Jose de Araújo Aguiar (page 1191)

The requirement for post-operative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy (OH) versus orchiectomy in dogs and cats was compared. Twelve male and 12 female cats and 12 male and 12 female dogs received meloxicam, 0.1 mg/kg body weight, PO, 2 h before surgery. Eleven female cats and 3 female dogs received rescue analgesia (P = 0.002). No male of either species required rescue analgesia. The number of cats receiving rescue analgesia was greater in females than in males (P < 0.0001). One should not rely solely on preoperative short-acting opioid and preemptive use of NSAIDs to control postoperative pain following OH, in dogs or cats. Postoperative pain after OH should be assessed for at least 2 h for cats and 4 h for dogs, using species-specific validated tools, to ensure proper postoperative pain diagnosis and management. Male dogs and cats subjected to orchiectomy required less postoperative analgesia intervention than female dogs and cats submitted to OH.

Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome in western Canada: 93 cases

Marina L. Leis, Danica Lucyshyn, Bianca S. Bauer, Bruce H. Grahn, Lynne S. Sandmeyer (page 1195)

This study reviewed clinical data from dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) in western Canada. Medical records from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 2002 to 2016 showed that 93 cases of SARDS were diagnosed based on presentation for sudden blindness and a bilaterally extinguished electroretinogram. The most common pure breeds were the miniature schnauzer, dachshund, and pug. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 years and males and females were equally affected. Most of the dogs were presented with normal non-chromatic, but abnormal chromatic pupillary light reflexes. The incidence of retinal degeneration as detected via ophthalmoscopy increased over time after SARDS diagnosis. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight gain, elevated liver enzyme values, isosthenuria, and proteinuria were common clinical and laboratory findings. Chromatic pupillary light reflex testing may be more valuable than non-chromatic pupillary light testing in detecting pupil response abnormalities in dogs with SARDS, although electroretinography remains the definitive diagnostic test.

Morcellation for testes extraction in horses undergoing standing laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy

Lucas Nolazco Sassot, Claude A. Ragle, Kelly D. Farnsworth, Caleb M. Lund (page 1215)

The major objective of this study was to describe the use of morcellation for standing laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in 30 client-owned horses. A second objective was to describe a laparoscopic-assisted standing scrotal technique for removal of a descended testis in unilateral cryptorchids. Morcellation for extraction of abdominal testes is effective, efficient, and well-tolerated. Morcellation enabled safe and straightforward extraction of testes from the abdomen through an approximately 13- to 20-mm incision using a 2-portal technique. No incisional or morcellator-related complications occurred. Our laparoscopic-assisted standing scrotal technique for removal of a descended testis in unilateral cryptorchids entails intra-abdominal sealing and transection of the spermatic cord under laparoscopic viewing and subsequent removal of the testis through a scrotal incision. This technique enabled the surgeon to confirm hemostasis after transection of the spermatic cord and allowed tension-free removal of the descended testis. No intra-operative or incisional complications were encountered.

Review Articles

Basics of monitoring equipment

Tanya Duke-Novakovski (page 1200)

Monitoring equipment has become reliable and affordable for use in general veterinary practice. This article provides a guide to technology, troubleshooting, and obtaining quality data using 4 non-invasive techniques that are commonly used in practice. Pulse oximetry estimates oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood, capnography measures the carbon dioxide content of inspired and expired gas, and either Doppler shift detection or oscillometry can be used to measure blood pressure. These useful non-invasive techniques all rely on adequate perfusion of the tissues for optimum function.

Brief Communications

Attitudes of western Canadian cow-calf producers towards the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle

Melissa Moggy, Edmond Pajor, Wilfreda Thurston, Sarah Parker, Angela Greter, Karen Schwartzkopf-Genswein, John Campbell, M. Claire Windeyer (page 1209)

This study describes western Canadian cow-calf producers' attitudes towards the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle (COPB). Most respondents had not read the COPB. Of those familiar with the COPB, most agreed with it, but it did not have a major influence on their decisions.

Student Paper

Unusual presentation of cyathostomiasis in an adult Thoroughbred mare

Emily Zakrajsek (page 1221)

A recently purchased 16-year-old Thoroughbred mare with a history of recurrent colic and low body weight, also had lameness in 3 limbs, pain at the sacro-iliac joint, and increased corneal opacity of the right eye. Response to supportive therapy was poor and euthanasia was elected. A postmortem examination and histopathology confirmed cyathostomiasis within the large colon and cecum and chronic anterior uveitis of the right eye.


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Veterinary School Admission
Paul Francis (page 1145)

Veterinary School Admission — A Response
Jeffrey J. Wichtel (page 1145)


International support and collaboration/Collaboration et soutien internationaux
Troye McPherson (page 1147)


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Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 1155)


A path outside of practice: Veterinarians employed in government, industry, and academe
Chris Doherty (page 1224)


Development of a video-based teaching tool on local anesthetic techniques in small animals
Paulo V. Steagall, Stelio P. Luna, Beatriz P. Monteiro, Patrick Burns (page 1213)


Bruce H. Grahn, Stephanie Osinchuk (page 1227)


One Health Case Studies: Addressing Complex Problems in a Changing World
Rayna Gunvaldsen (page 1223)



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