Table of Contents and AbstractsJune 2017, Vol. 58, No. 6



Canine laparoscopic ovariectomy using two 3- and 5-mm portal sites: A prospective randomized clinical trial

Juan-Ramón Granados, Jesús Usón-Casaus, José-Manuel Martínez, Francisco Sánchez-Margallo, Eva Pérez-Merino (page 565)

Laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOve) was performed in 3 groups (2.7-mm/5-mm, 5-mm/3-mm, and 5-mm telescope/5-mm bipolar forceps) of small dogs (n = 60). Surgical times, bleeding rates, complications, and laparoscopic visualization were recorded and compared among groups. Use of the 3-mm bipolar forceps significantly increased the surgical time and showed higher bleeding rates compared with the 5-mm bipolar forceps. The 2.7-mm telescope significantly decreased the laparoscopic view. No complications were seen in any group. In conclusion, the 2.7-mm 30° telescope or the 3-mm bipolar forceps combined with the 5-mm instruments could be used as an alternative technique for LapOve in dogs up to 10 kg. The 2.7-mm telescope with the 5-mm bipolar forceps was the most efficient combination based on surgical time.

Biosecurity practices and causes of enteritis on Ontario meat rabbit farms

Jennifer Kylie, Marina Brash, Ashley Whiteman, Brian Tapscott, Durda Slavic, J. Scott Weese, Patricia V. Turner (page 571)

Infectious enterocolitis is a significant cause of mortality in meat rabbits. Disease risk is enhanced by intensive rearing practices and poor on-farm biosecurity. This investigation was undertaken in farmed meat rabbits during an Ontario-wide outbreak of enteritis with high mortality to determine the prevalence of causative agents. A survey evaluating on-farm biosecurity practices was also conducted to identify potential means of pathogen contamination and zoonotic risks. Gross and microscopic pathology evaluations combined with microbiologic testing were conducted on 95 rabbits over spring and winter months. Escherichia coli and Clostridium spiroforme were most commonly associated with enteritis in rabbits regardless of age or season and lesions were significantly more severe in mature does (P < 0.0001). The survey results demonstrated a lack of consistent on-farm biosecurity practices. The infectious nature of enteric disease of rabbits combined with poor biosecurity practices may contribute to disease transmission within and between farms.

Internal fixation of fractured ribs in neonatal foals with nylon cable tie using a modified technique

T. Boullhesen Williams, Jarred M. Williams, Dwayne H. Rodgerson (page 579)

Nylon cable tie has been shown to be an effective and economical method for fixing fractured ribs in the neonatal foal. This article describes a modification of the previously described technique. Under general anesthesia, the fractured ribs were exposed and a hole was drilled in the dorsal and ventral fragments. The fracture was not reduced, leaving the fragments overriding each other. The nylon cable tie was passed through the hole in the dorsal fragment from the external surface of the rib. The free end of the cable tie was then passed through the hole in the ventral fragment from the external surface of the rib and the tie was tightened. This technique was used in 4 neonatal foals with no complications. The modification of the original technique represents a method to minimize soft tissue trauma, implant failure, and complications.

Case Reports

Buccal feed impaction and surgical correction in captive reindeer

Bethany Holliday, Aimie Doyle, Michelle Oakley, Riley Wilson (page 582)

An 8-year-old female captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) (1) was presented for evaluation of bilateral protrusion of the cheeks of 1-month duration. Several members of the herd displayed similar clinical signs. Examination revealed stretching and laxity of the cheek muscles and buccal food impaction. The defect of each cheek was surgically repaired in the field under heavy sedation and local anesthesia in staged procedures; no surgical complications were encountered. The patient recovered uneventfully and long-term prognosis is good. This report describes a surgical treatment for individual animals with cheek laxity and buccal food impaction.

Supracutaneous plating using a locking plate for the treatment of a tibial fracture in a cat

Tommaso Nicetto, Federico Longo (page 585)

Radiographs revealed a slightly displaced long oblique diaphyseal tibial fracture with bone fissures running distally in a 2-year-old, 4.5 kg cat that had been hit by a car. An angle stable implant was applied in a supracutaneous fashion. The patient tolerated the external implant and had a satisfactory functional recovery. Radiographic follow-up after 60 days revealed sign of osseous union; therefore, the plate was removed.

Presumptive primary pulmonary mast cell tumor in 2 dogs

Olivier Campbell, Louis-Philippe de Lorimier, Guy Beauregard, Sébastien Overvelde, Shannon Johnson (page 591)

Two dogs were presented, each with a large solitary pulmonary mass, and cytology confirmed mast cell tumor (MCT) in each dog. One dog was euthanized following diagnosis. Thoracic computed tomography scan and exploratory thoracotomy of the second dog revealed a right pulmonary mass that would require a radical lung resection. The patient was euthanized and histopathology confirmed a poorly granulated MCT with characteristics suggestive of epitheliotropism, an uncommon finding with MCT. These represent the first reported cases of presumptive primary pulmonary MCT in dogs.

Diaphragmatic hernia in a pet chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera)

Jessica Aymen, Isabelle Langlois, Isabelle Lanthier (page 597)

A 10-year-old pet chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was referred for ultrasound investigation of a thoracic mass. The mass was initially believed to be a pulmonary abscess or tumor based on radiographs and ultrasound. Cytological examination suggested the presence of a gastrointestinal structure in the thorax, and necropsy revealed a true diaphragmatic hernia subdividing the stomach into thoracic and abdominal portions.

Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome

Alicia Skelding, Alexander Valverde (page 614)

A healthy, 9-month-old black Angus bull was presented for elective penile-preputial translocation and caudal epididymectomy. After premedication and induction, general anesthesia was maintained with inhalant anesthetic. Over an hour into the anesthetic period the bull developed severe hyperthermia and hypercapnia that resulted in fatality despite treatment efforts.

Brief Communications

Bovine astrovirus infection in feedlot cattle with neurological disease in western Canada

Senija Selimovic-Hamza, Sergio Sanchez, Hélène Philibert, Edward G. Clark, Torsten Seuberlich (page 601)

A novel bovine astrovirus (BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1) has been associated with encephalitis in cattle in Europe and the USA. We retrospectively analyzed feedlot cattle with encephalitis of unknown etiology for this virus by in-situ hybridization. Results suggest that BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 is a major cause of encephalitis in western Canadian feedlot cattle.

Use of a non-invasive surgical skin closure device in dogs following dorsolateral hemilaminectomy

Christopher Corrie, Justin Shmalberg, Christine Senneca, Bobbi Conner (page 604)

The ZipLine 16 surgical skin closure device (ZipLine 16; Zipline Medical, Campbell, California, USA) provides noninvasive surgical wound closure. This prospective study investigated its use in dogs undergoing a dorsolateral hemilaminectomy. Although the device produced normal appositional healing compared with controls, unacceptable traumatic dermatitis that is likely related to the device adhesive was noted after removal.

Identification of bovine astrovirus in cases of bovine non-suppurative encephalitis in eastern Canada

Maria T. Spinato, Andrew Vince, Hugh Cai, Davor Ojkic (page 607)

Bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) was identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on brain tissue of 2 feedlot cattle that died of non-suppurative encephalitis. Sequencing demonstrated a high degree of identity with neurotropic US and Swiss BoAstV strains. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of BoAstV-associated encephalitis in cattle residing in eastern Canada.

Outcomes in dogs with uncomplicated, presumptive bacterial pneumonia treated with short or long course antibiotics

Annie Wayne, Megan Davis, Virginia B. Sinnott, Kiko Bracker (page 610)

This is a prospective, observational investigation without a placebo arm to evaluate the resolution rate of pneumonia when using 14 days or less of antibiotic therapy compared to longer therapy in dogs. There was no significant difference in radiographic resolution or relapse rates between the 2 treatment groups.

Student Paper

Successful treatment of blastomycosis in a 7-year-old, female golden retriever dog on Manitoulin Island, Ontario

Rachael K. Needles (page 617)

A 7-year-old female golden retriever dog was presented with a 2-week history of coughing and inappetence. Examination, radiographs, and blood analysis showed classic evidence of blastomycosis, confirmed with the MVista EIA urine antigen test. A 2-month course of itraconazole and a course of mirtazapine, meloxicam, furosemide, and tetracycline resulted in a successful outcome.


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Raw food diets for pets
Carlton Gyles (page 537)


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Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 547)


Becoming a vet; What may be in your first year
Dr. Brianne Cantafio (page 620)


Comments on the Ethical Question of the Month: January 2017 (CVJ 2017;58:15)
CABV/ACVB Board of Directors (page 621)


No-win communication
Myrna Milani (page 623)


Cutaneous cytology and the dermatology patient
Jangi Bajwa (page 625)


Mammary gland neoplasia in a Canadian mare: Challenges of diagnosis and treatment in a rural setting
Shannon D. Boyce, Shelley L. Goodwin (page 628)



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