Table of Contents and AbstractsMay 2017, Vol. 58, No. 5



Complications and risk factors of castration with primary wound closure: Retrospective study in 159 horses

Mickaël P. Robert, Ronan J.J. Chapuis, Claire de Fourmestraux, Olivier J. Geffroy (page 466)

Castration with primary wound closure reportedly has lower complication rates and shorter recovery periods compared to castration with second intention healing. However, little is known about risk factors associated with complications using primary wound closure. Medical records of 159 horses castrated and having primary wound closure were reviewed. Main short-term complications were: scrotal hematoma in 12 horses (7.6%), signs of colic in 6 horses (3.8%), fever in 4 horses (2.5%), and peri-incisional edema in 3 horses (1.9%). As for long-term complications, 24 out of 105 (23%) horses sustained some form of edema. One horse was euthanized because of a suspected inguinal abscess. Among tested parameters, horses aged 3 to 6 years old and French trotters appeared to be more at risk of developing complications. Intraoperative ligation of the cremaster muscle and use of electrocautery prevented complications. Overall, client satisfaction was excellent (98%).

Treatment rates for injectable tiamulin and lincomycin as an estimate of morbidity in a swine herd with endemic swine dysentery

Krysia Walczak, Robert Friendship, Egan Brockoff, Amy Greer, Zvonimir Poljak (page 472)

Treatment can be used as an indirect measure of morbidity, and treatment records can be used to describe disease patterns in a population. The aim of this study was to describe the rates of treatments with tiamulin and lincomycin by the intramuscular route in cohorts of pigs affected by swine dysentery. Data from treatment records from 19 cohorts of a 1500-head grower-finisher barn were analyzed using Poisson regression to determine factors associated with rates of treatment. Serial interval and reproductive numbers were extracted. Treatment rates displayed marked seasonality. The mean serial interval was estimated at 17 d with variability among batches. In the early period of most cohorts, the effective reproductive number did not exceed 1, and the highest estimate was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.46, 3.20). The average days-to-first treatment was 4.8 which suggests that pigs could have been infected at time of entry. The information about possible sources of infection and likely seasonality should be considered when developing disease and infection control measures in affected barns.

Information needs, sources, and decision-making by hatching egg and broiler chicken producers: A qualitative study in Alberta, Canada

R. Michele Anholt, Margaret Russell, Tom Inglis, Darko Mitevski, David Hall (page 482)

Understanding the sources and use of information from hatching egg and broiler chicken producers, their constraints, and unmet information needs can help define future research agendas. This report presents the results from a qualitative study using interviews of 11 hatching egg producers and 12 broiler producers in Alberta, Canada. Patterns were reported and described using thematic analysis. Producers recognized that there were numerous sources of information available to them for managing disease in their flocks. Complex disease issues such as early mortality were discussed, but many producers did not believe they had any influence over the outcomes and did not see a benefit from additional information to improve outcomes. Producers described their experience, trust in the information source, and the usefulness of the information for decision-making as necessary for information uptake.

Congenital nuclear cataracts in a Holstein dairy herd

Stephanie Osinchuk, Lyall Petrie, Marina Leis, Fritz Schumann, Bianca Bauer, Lynne Sandmeyer, Kayla Madder, Fiona Buchanan, Bruce Grahn (page 488)

This report describes congenital nuclear cataracts and posterior lenticonus in a closed purebred Holstein dairy herd in Canada. Ophthalmic examinations were completed on 30 male and 249 female cattle aged newborn to 10 years old. Nutritional, infectious, and toxic etiologies were investigated. Necropsies of 3 affected calves were performed and eyes of 2 additional affected calves were examined with light microscopy. Bilateral nuclear cataracts were identified in 53/279 (19%) animals. Additional congenital anomalies observed included posterior lenticonus, iris to lens persistent pupillary membranes (n = 7), and lenticular colobomata (n = 1). Heifers did not give birth to calves with congenital nuclear cataracts (0/105), whereas the incidence of affected calves born to multiparous cows was 31% (53/171). The animals with nuclear cataracts ranged from newborn to 8 years old. The cataracts appeared to be non- or minimally progressive. Light microscopic examination of 10 affected globes confirmed nuclear cataract with posterior lenticonus (n = 10). Pedigree analysis was inconclusive. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis for the NID1 gene deletion were negative. The etiology of the congenital lenticular anomalies was not determined.

Case Reports

Ovarian carcinomatosis in a dog managed with surgery and intraperitoneal, systemic, and intrapleural chemotherapy utilizing indwelling pleural access ports

Matthew P. Best, Angela E. Frimberger (page 493)

A 3-year-old Weimaraner dog was presented with bilateral papillary ovarian carcinoma and abdominal carcinomatosis. Treatment included ovariectomy, intraperitoneal cisplatin, and systemic carboplatin. Pleural carcinomatosis 473 days following surgery was treated with intrapleural cisplatin through indwelling pleural access ports. Euthanasia occurred 1154 days following surgery due to malignant pleural effusion without peritoneal effusion.

Femoral head ostectomy and medial patellar ligament desmotomy to treat a pregnant miniature horse with coxofemoral joint luxation and upward fixation of the patella

Elsa K. Ludwig, Christopher R. Byron (page 498)

A 2-year-old, 8-weeks pregnant, non-weight bearing miniature horse mare was treated for a 6-day-old left coxofemoral joint luxation with a femoral head ostectomy. The procedure had no negative effects on pregnancy or parturition and 23 months following surgery the horse had minimal lameness.

Frontal and caudal maxillary sinus lipoma in a horse

Elsa K. Ludwig, Christopher R. Byron, Kevin K. Lahmers, Marcos P. Santos (page 503)

An adult horse was diagnosed with a frontal and caudal maxillary sinus lipoma, which was surgically removed. This is the first known report of a sinus lipoma in a horse. Lipomas should be considered in the differential diagnoses of equine sinus masses; complete surgical excision appears to be curative.

Student Paper

Idiopathic glaucoma in an 11-year-old crossbred mare

Daniella Rizzo (page 508)

An 11-year-old crossbred mare was presented with left eye buphthalmia, a mydriatic minimally responsive pupil, locally extensive ventral corneal edema, and corneal striae. Intraocular pressures exceeding 80 mmHg lead to a presumptive diagnosis of glaucoma. Following several days of treatment there was no improvement and enucleation was performed.


(page 441)



Let's answer the "Why?"
Troy Bourque (page 433)


(page 437)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 443)


Lessons learned from the evolution of terrestrial animal health surveillance in Canada and options for creating a new collaborative national structure
V. Wayne Lees, Cameron Prince (page 459)


Bouncing back across the board: Results of the 2016 CVMA Practice Owners Economic Survey
Chris Doherty (page 511)


Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Jerome Gagnon, Bianca S. Bauer (page 515)


Current Therapy in Avian Medicine and Surgery
Lynn Smart-Ridgway (page 481)



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(page 471)


(page 518)