Table of Contents and AbstractsAugust 2017, Vol. 58, No. 8



Agreement among undergraduate and graduate veterinary students and veterinary anesthesiologists on pain assessment in cats and dogs: A preliminary study

Graeme M. Doodnaught, Javier Benito, Beatriz P. Monteiro, Guy Beauchamp, Stefania C. Grasso, Paulo V. Steagall (page 805)

This study investigated agreement among undergraduate and graduate veterinary students and veterinary anesthesiologists on video pain assessment at the University of Montreal. Pain assessment in dogs and cats appeared to be affected by gender, previous experience, and degree of training despite a small population of observers.

Comparative efficacy of intranasal and injectable vaccines in stimulating Bordetella bronchiseptica-reactive anamnestic antibody responses in household dogs

John A. Ellis, Sheryl P. Gow, Lindsey B. Lee, Stacey Lacoste, Eileen C. Ball (page 809)

In order to determine the comparative efficacy of injectable and intranasal vaccines to stimulate Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb)-reactive anamnestic antibodies, a trial was conducted using 144 adult household dogs of various breeds and ages, which had been previously administered intranasal Bb vaccine approximately 12 months before enrollment. Dogs were randomized into 2 groups and blood, nasal swabs, and pharyngeal swabs were collected prior to the administration of single component Bb vaccines intranasally or parenterally. Ten to 14 days later all dogs were resampled to measure changes in systemic and local antibody to Bb. There were no differences in the changes in Bb-reactive serum IgG and nasal IgA between the groups, whereas intranasally vaccinated dogs had significantly higher Bb-reactive serum IgA. These data indicate that both of the current generation of intranasal (modified-live) and injectable (acellular) Bb vaccines can stimulate anamnestic local and systemic antibody responses in previously vaccinated, Bb-seropositive adult household dogs.

Blood lactate concentration in diabetic dogs

Poliana Claus, André M. Gimenes, Jacqueline R. Castro, Matheus M. Mantovani, Khadine K. Kanayama, Denise M.N. Simões, Denise S. Schwartz (page 817)

Human diabetic patients may have increased lactate levels compared to non-diabetics. Despite the use of lactate levels in critical care assessment, information is lacking for diabetic dogs. Therefore, this prospective cross-sectional clinical study aimed to determine lactate concentrations in 75 diabetic dogs [25 newly diagnosed non-ketotic diabetics, 25 under insulin treatment, and 25 in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)], compared to 25 non-diabetic dogs. Lactate levels (mmol/L) were not different among groups (P = 0.20); median and 25th to 75th percentile were 2.23 and P25–75 = 1.46 to 2.83 for controls, 1.69 and P25–75 = 1.09 to 2.40 for newly diagnosed non-ketotic diabetics, 2.27 and P25–75 = 1.44 to 2.90 for dogs under insulin treatment for at least 30 days, and 2.40 and P25–75 = 1.58 to 3.01 for dogs in DKA. Longitudinal studies assessing both isomers (L- and D-lactate) are needed to better elucidate the role of lactate in the pathophysiology of diabetes acid-base status in dogs.

Response to acupuncture treatment in horses with chronic laminitis

Babak Faramarzi, Dongbin Lee, Kevin May, Fanglong Dong (page 823)

There is a need for evidence-based scientific research to address the question of the effectiveness of acupuncture in improving clinical signs of laminitis in horses. The objective of this study was to compare lameness levels before and after 2 acupuncture treatments in horses with chronic laminitis. Twelve adult horses with chronic laminitis received 2 acupuncture treatments 1 week apart. The points were treated using dry needling, hemo-acupuncture, and aqua-acupuncture. Lameness level was objectively evaluated using an inertial sensor-based lameness evaluation system (Lameness Locator), as well as routine examinations following American Association of Equine Practitioners scoring before the first and 1 week after the second acupuncture treatment. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Both the Lameness Locator (P = 0.0269) and routine lameness examination (P = 0.0039) showed a significant reduction in lameness severity. Our results support using acupuncture, along with other treatment options, in treating chronic equine laminitis.

Flock-level prevalence, geographical distribution, and seasonal variation of avian reovirus among broiler flocks in Ontario

Eric G. Nham, David L. Pearl, Durda Slavic, Rachel Ouckama, Davor Ojkic, Michele T. Guerin (page 828)

Avian reovirus (ARV) is an economically significant pathogen of broiler chickens. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, and seasonal variation of ARV infection among commercial broiler flocks in Ontario, Canada during grow-out. A cross-sectional study of 231 randomly selected flocks was conducted from July 2010 to January 2012. Fifteen blood samples, 15 whole intestines, and 15 cloacal swabs per flock were collected at slaughter; ELISA and PCR were used to determine a flock's ARV exposure status. Avian reovirus prevalence was 91% (95% CI: 87 to 94). District alone did not significantly explain the overall variation in the prevalence of ARV (univariable logistic regression; P = 0.073), although geographical differences were identified. The odds of ARV presence were significantly lower in the summer/autumn compared to the winter/spring (univariable exact logistic regression; P < 0.001). There was no association between flock mortality and flock ELISA mean titer or PCR status.

Case Reports

Use of skin stretching techniques before bilateral caudal superficial epigastric axial flaps in a dog with severe burns

Michelle M. Zingel, Sherisse A. Sakals (page 835)

This report describes how 2 days of skin stretching facilitated a tension-free closure of single event bilateral caudal superficial epigastric flaps in a dog with severe hindquarter burns. Full healing at all surgical sites with only minor dehiscence and without further treatment or abnormalities of gait or coat regrowth was achieved.

Meningeal dissemination of a pituitary carcinoma to the cauda equina in a dog

Nora K. Sheehan, Helena Rylander, Neil Christensen, Laura A. Nafe (page 839)

An 8-year-old spayed female border collie dog was diagnosed with an invasive pituitary macrotumor. Five months after radiation therapy, the patient developed paraparesis and lumbosacral pain. Necropsy revealed a pituitary carcinoma with cauda equina drop metastasis. In cases of pituitary masses, meningeal dissemination should be considered if neurologic status declines.

Cecal entrapment within the epiploic foramen in a mare

Remigiusz M. Grzeskowiak, Elizabeth J. Barrett, Dwayne H. Rodgerson (page 842)

An 11-year-old Thoroughbred mare with colic unresponsive to medical treatment underwent exploratory laparotomy. During surgery the cecum was found entrapped within the epiploic foramen from left to right. The entrapped cecum was reduced through the foramen by gentle traction. After reduction of the cecum, rupture of the portal vein was detected. Loss of a large amount of blood prompted euthanasia during surgery.

Outcome of prolonged acute vena cava occlusion after iatrogenic transection and repair in a dog

Marie-Chantal Halwagi, Evan Crawford, Katie Hoddinott, Michelle L. Oblak (page 845)

A 12-year-old castrated male Airedale terrier dog was diagnosed with a hepatocellular carcinoma in the right medial liver lobe. During tumor resection, inadvertent stapling and transection of the caudal vena cava occurred. Complete caval occlusion was required for 18 minutes and primary anastomosis was completed. The dog received 2 blood transfusions and developed mild pelvic limb edema after surgery. Computed tomography evaluation 9 months after surgery showed collateral circulation and suspected stricture of the vena cava with an absence of clinical effect. The dog remained alive and asymptomatic more than 1 year after surgery.

Intranasal mast cell tumor in the dog: A case series

Alison Khoo, Amy Lane, Ken Wyatt (page 851)

The medical records of 4 dogs with histologically confirmed intranasal mast cell tumors (MCTs) were retrospectively evaluated to determine their biological behavior. Information on signalment, presenting clinical signs, tumor grade, treatment administered, and survival times was obtained from the medical record. All 4 patients had high grade tumors and received chemotherapy. Survival times ranged from 27 to 134 days. All 4 dogs showed signs of local or distant disease progression, suggestive of an aggressive behavior of intranasal MCTs.

Spontaneous resorption of a herniated cervical disc in a dog detected by magnetic resonance imaging

Francesca Raimondi, Beatriz Moreno-Aguado, Phil Witte, Nadia Shihab (page 855)

This report describes, for the first time in small animal literature, the spontaneous resorption of herniated Hansen type I intervertebral disc material in the cervical spine of a chondrodystrophic dog over a 4-month period, documented by magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical signs (cervical hyperpathia) responded to conservative treatment during the same period.


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Brachycephalic dogs — time for action
Carlton Gyles (page 777)


(page 781)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 787)


Canada: Serotyping of Haemophilus parasuis field isolates from diseased pigs in Quebec by indirect hemagglutination assay and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Sonia Lacouture, Edisleidy Rodriguez, Katrin Strutzberg-Minder, Marcelo Gottschalk (page 802)


The eradication of bovine tuberculosis in Canada
Hugh G. Whitney (page 859)


Dimensions of wellness: Change your habits, change your life
Debbie L. Stoewen (page 861)


Establishing self-confidence through learned knowledge
Sara Watt (page 863)


Communication: Touchy at-home treatment communication dilemmas
Myrna Milani (page 865)


Canine & Feline Endocrinology, 4th edition
Greg Parks (page 858)

Blackwell's Five Minute Veterinary Consult: Avian
Janeen Junaid (page 860)



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