Table of Contents and AbstractsOctober 2017, Vol. 58, No. 10



Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing yearling beef cattle in Saskatchewan

Murray Jelinski, John Gilleard, Lisa Rocheleau, Grant Royan, Cheryl Waldner (page 1044)

The objective of this study was to provide contemporary data on the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasite infections of grazing yearling beef cattle in the province of Saskatchewan. Fecal samples (n = 1290) were collected over 4 time periods during the summer grazing season from 21 separately managed groups of cattle. Fecal egg counts (FEC) were estimated using generalized estimating equations with a negative binomial distribution with log link function, adjusting for clustering of samples within each herd for each time period. Nematodirus spp. and Trichuris spp. eggs were enumerated separately and were detected in 5.7% (73/1290) and 1.7% (22/1290) of samples, respectively. One or more strongyle-type eggs were detected in 79.5% (1025/1290) of the samples and FEC increased by 2.8 times over the summer grazing season. Interestingly, FEC were ~3.4 times higher on pastures located in dark brown versus brown soil zones, a finding that warrants further investigation.

Evaluation of long-acting oxytetracycline and a commercial monovalent vaccine for the control of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis infection in beef bulls

Nathan E.N. Erickson, Emily Lanigan, Taryn Waugh, Karen Gesy, Cheryl Waldner (page 1051)

A blinded randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a multi-modal therapeutic regime for treatment of beef bulls infected with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv). Treatment included 2 doses of a commercially available monovalent vaccine and long-acting oxytetracycline applied twice at a 2-week interval with treatment completed 2 weeks before post-treatment observation. Fifteen confirmed Cfv infected bulls were randomly allocated to control (n = 8) or treatment groups (n = 7). Preputial scrapings were collected each week from before infection to 11 weeks following the last treatment. When the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for both culture and preputial scrapings were interpreted in parallel, there were no significant differences between treated and untreated bulls. Regardless of the type of diagnostic testing considered, treatment with 2 label doses of this regime did not stop shedding of Cfv in all treated bulls and is, therefore, not recommended as an effective management strategy.

Retrospective evaluation of toceranib (Palladia) treatment for canine metastatic appendicular osteosarcoma

Changseok Kim, Arata Matsuyama, Anthony J. Mutsaers, J. Paul Woods (page 1059)

This retrospective study evaluated the outcomes of dogs with macroscopic pulmonary metastasis of appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) treated with toceranib. Medical records of 20 dogs with macroscopic pulmonary metastasis of OSA that received toceranib were reviewed. The median dose and duration of toceranib administration were 2.52 mg/kg (range: 2.12 to 2.72 mg/kg) and 60 days (range: 17 to 231 days). The median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 36 days (range: 17 to 231 days) and 90 days (range: 17 to 433 days), respectively. The clinical benefit rate was 10% (2/20; 1 partial response and 1 stable disease). The longest length of initial pulmonary nodules had significant impact on both PFS (P = 0.01) and OS (P = 0.02). The prognosis for dogs with metastatic OSA was poor with only 10% of dogs showing clinical benefit from toceranib. These results suggest that toceranib may not improve outcome in dogs with macroscopic pulmonary metastasis of OSA.

Evaluation of the effect of umbilical hernias on play behaviors in growing pigs

Melissa Atkinson, Rocio Amezcua, Josepha DeLay, Tina Widowski, Robert Friendship (page 1065)

Umbilical hernias (UH) are common in pigs and are an animal welfare concern. This study used an assessment of play behavior to evaluate the welfare of pigs with UH. Twenty-one grower pigs with UH and 17 without hernias (WUH) were assigned to 16 playing groups (PG) of 2 or 3 pigs (with at least 1 UH pig per PG). The time each animal was engaged in any of the defined playing behaviors for locomotor/social or toy play behaviors was recorded. Mixed Poisson or negative binomial and linear models were used to determine the effect of UH and day of session, accounting for the cluster of pigs within groups, on the frequency of each play behavior, and playing times. Pigs with UH had the same frequency of most play behaviors and playing times as pigs without hernias. There was no indication that the presence of UH-affected play behavior or performance in pigs.

Feline meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin: A retrospective analysis of 16 cases

Arianna Negrin, Sarah Spencer, Giunio Bruto Cherubini (page 1073)

This study aimed to describe the signalment, clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, treatment, and outcome of feline meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (FMUO). Medical records from 16 cats meeting the inclusion criteria of CSF pleocytosis, negative CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-infectious disease results, and characteristic MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. Median age was 9.4 years. Clinical signs included ataxia, proprioceptive deficits, seizures, and spinal hyperesthesia. The CSF nucleated cell count was increased (median 70.7 cells/µL), with predominantly mixed pleocytosis and CSF protein concentration was increased in 15/16 cats. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intraparenchymal infiltrative ill-defined lesions in 13 cases. All cats received a corticosteroid-based treatment protocol; additional therapies included lomustine, cytarabine, and anticonvulsant medications. Mild neurological signs were recorded in 5/12 cats but 7/12 cats were neurologically normal at re-examination. This represents the first study of feline MUO, highlighting FMUO as an important differential diagnosis in cats with variable neurological presentation. Prognosis appears to be good with immunomodulatory therapy.

Use of topical healing agents on scrotal wounds after surgical castration in weaned beef calves

Sonia Marti, Karen S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Eugene D. Janzen, Daniela M. Meléndez, Désirée Gellatly, Edmond A. Pajor (page 1081)

Angus bulls (n = 48) were randomly assigned to control (castrated without the application of a post-operative healing agent) or surgical castration followed by either the application of a topical germicide, aluminum powder spray, or liquid bandage. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of commercial topical healing agents in improving wound healing and reducing inflammation and secondary infection after surgical castration. Indicators of wound healing included scrotal area temperature (determined by infrared thermography), scrotal circumference, clinical state of the scrotum score, and the wound healing score. Pain sensitivity was measured using a Von Frey anesthesiometer. The healing agents used in this study did not improve indicators of healing such as swelling and healing rate scores or indicators of inflammation including scrotal temperature and circumference of surgical castration lesions. Pain sensation associated with surgical castration was found to last 35 d after the procedure.

Association of unmeasured strong ions with outcome of hospitalized beef and dairy diarrheic calves

Diego E. Gomez, Jeanne Lofstedt, Luis G. Arroyo, Maureen Wichtel, Tammy Muirhead, Henri Stämpfli, J. Trenton McClure (page 1086)

Increased systemic concentrations of L-lactate and unmeasured strong ions (USI) are associated with an increased risk of mortality in human neonates and adults suffering from various diseases. This exploratory study aimed to investigate if values of certain acid-base parameters, especially L-lactate and USI, on admission to hospital are associated with mortality in diarrheic calves. Fifty-five calves < 28 days old admitted to 2 teaching hospitals for diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea were included. Admission demographic, physical examination, blood gas and biochemistry analysis, and outcome data were recorded. Admission acid-base values associated with outcome were assessed using multivariable regression modeling. Calves with elevated plasma L-lactate (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.55; P = 0.005) and USI (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.74; P = 0.003) at admission were more likely to die or to be euthanized. This study revealed that elevated concentrations of L-lactate and USI at admission were positively associated with mortality.

Prevalence and clinical features of hypoadrenocorticism in Great Pyrenees dogs in a referred population: 11 cases

Magali Decôme, Marie-Claude Blais (page 1093)

Naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence in the canine population between 0.06% and 0.28%. This retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and clinical features of hypoadrenocorticism in Great Pyrenees (GP) dogs presented to the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire of the University of Montreal between March 2005 and October 2014. During this period, 100 dogs were diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism, representing 0.38% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26% to 0.5%] of the canine population studied. The highest prevalence was observed in GP (9.73%, 95% CI: 9.12% to 10.35%, P < 0.0001), followed by West Highland white terriers (4.66%, 95% CI: 4.24% to 5.09%, P < 0.0001), Great Danes (1.87%, 95% CI: 1.6% to 2.14%, P < 0.0001), standard poodles (1.76%, 95% CI: 1.5% to 2.02%, P = 0.0001), Saint Bernards (1.72%, 95% CI: 1.47% to 1.98%, P = 0.018), and Jack Russell terriers (1.48%, 95% CI: 1.24% to 1.72%, P = 0.003). Although most clinical features were nonspecific, Great Pyrenees dogs were more frequently presented with anemia, azotemia, and eosinophilia, or with hypotension and cachexia compared with dogs of other breeds.

Case Reports

Hypocholesterolemia and nonregenerative, suspected immune-mediated, anemia: Report of 3 canine cases

Rachel Robbins, Katrina R. Viviano (page 1100)

This report describes hypocholesterolemia in 3 dogs with nonregenerative, suspected immune-mediated anemias. Common causes of hypocholesterolemia were ruled out, raising suspicion for a mechanistic link between anemia and hypocholesterolemia in dogs. As observed in humans with concurrent anemia and hypocholesterolemia, cholesterol concentrations increased to within the reference interval once the dogs' anemia resolved.

Hemangiosarcoma within an intermuscular lipoma in a golden retriever dog

Claire Leriquier, Marie-Odile Benoit-Biancamano, Hugues Lacoste, Gregory D. Herndon (page 1105)

A subcutaneous mass on the right pelvic limb of an 11-year-old neutered male golden retriever dog was surgically excised. A hemangiosarcoma included within an intermuscular lipoma was diagnosed upon histopathological examination. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of this nature in a dog.

Accidental selenium toxicosis in lambs

Christina M. McKenzie, Ahmad N. Al-Dissi (page 1110)

Acute selenium toxicosis occurred in 3-week-old lambs after accidental over-supplementation by intramuscular injection and caused dyspnea, cyanosis, and sudden death. Pathological lesions included myocardial necrosis, skeletal muscle necrosis, pulmonary edema, hydrothorax, and hydropericardium.


(page 1029)



Cruelty to Animals
Robert J. Evenson (page 1017)

Animal Health Surveillance
Ian Alexander, Harold Kloeze (page 1017)


The medical case report
Carlton Gyles (page 1021)


(page 1025)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 1031)


Strategies for fostering resilience as veterinary care providers
Marie K. Holowaychuk (page 1113)


Comments on the Ethical Question of the Month: July 2017 (CVJ 2017;58:651)
Maureen Harper (page 1117)


Canine Malassezia dermatitis
Jangi Bajwa (page 1119)


Catastrophic communication
Myrna Milani (page 1123)


Crow & Walshaw's Manual of Clinical Procedures in Dogs, Cats, Rabbits & Rodents, 4th edition
Janeen Junaid (page 1099)

Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs, and Goats, 11th edition, Volumes 1 and 2
Cathy Patterson (page 1116)



(page 1121)


(page 1125)