Table of Contents and AbstractsJuly 2017, Vol. 58, No. 7


Case Reports

Management of a tracheal intussusception in a dog

Manureva Lebreton, Eric Bomassi, Sebastien Etchepareborde (page 695)

A 5-year-old Belgian Malinois dog was presented for evaluation of dyspnea of 1-month duration. Tracheal intussusception was diagnosed by tracheoscopy. Treatment consisted of surgical resection of the invaginated tracheal ring and the immediate cranial and caudal tracheal rings. The dog recovered uneventfully; complications included temporary emphysema after surgery. Seven months after surgery, the dog was still clinically normal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a tracheal intussusception treated surgically in a dog.

Fluoroscopic and endoscopic diagnosis of a lower esophageal ring causing foreign body impaction in a dog

Hakyoung Yoon, Yeunhea Lee, Kidong Eom, Jaehwan Kim (page 699)

A dog was presented because of regurgitation over a 3-day period. Radiographic examination revealed a bean-shaped filling defect and an annular narrowing at the level of the gastroesophageal sphincter. The contractile ring-like structure was sharply demarcated, and its appearance varied according to gastroesophageal distension. Endoscopic findings revealed lower esophageal ring and foreign body impaction.

Hemoabdomen secondary to high grade lymphoma

Carolina Azevedo, Stephanie Schleis Lindley, Annette Smith, Kellye Joiner, Peter Christopherson (page 703)

A 10-year-old castrated male Labrador retriever dog was presented for evaluation of a right elbow mass. Mandibular lymphadenopathy was noted on physical examination. Following sudden death after discharge, a necropsy was performed. Cause of death was determined to be due to hemoabdomen secondary to high grade lymphoma.

Retro-orbital and disseminated B-cell lymphoma in a yellow-collared macaw (Primolius auricollis)

Kim Le, Hugues Beaufrère, Emily Brouwer, S. Karlyn Bland, Sarah Wills, Shawn MacKenzie, Heather Chalmers, Chantale Pinard, R. Darren Wood, Josepha DeLay, Dale A. Smith (page 707)

A yellow-collared macaw was presented with unilateral left exophthalmia. The complete blood cell count and biochemistry revealed a heterophilic leukocytosis and elevation in liver parameters, respectively. A computed tomography scan showed a contrast-enhancing retrobulbar mass and hepatomegaly. Cytology of the liver was consistent with a round cell tumor, most likely lymphoma. The bird died after 2 months of palliative care. Postmortem examination confirmed a retro-orbital and disseminated B-cell lymphoma.

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in a dog with a histiocytic sarcoma

Anne-Charlotte Barrot, Agathe Bédard, Marilyn Dunn (page 713)

A 7-year-old female neutered Bernese mountain dog was presented in a semi-comatose state. Based on serum hypo-osmolality with inappropriate urine hyper-osmolality and urine sodium excretion, the dog was diagnosed with a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion secondary to a histiocytic sarcoma. This report describes the first case of this syndrome in a dog with histiocytic sarcoma.


Equine recurrent uveitis in western Canadian prairie provinces: A retrospective study (2002–2015)

Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Bianca S. Bauer, Cindy Xin Feng, Bruce H. Grahn (page 717)

The objectives of this study were to determine the demographics of horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) presenting to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine and to describe and compare the prognosis of ERU in the Appaloosa with that in other breeds. Horses diagnosed with ERU by a veterinary ophthalmologist between 2002 and 2015 were included. Eye lesions were classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on clinical manifestations. Breed, age, severity, blindness, and final outcome were evaluated. Thirty-two horses fit the inclusion criteria; 62.5% were Appaloosas. Mean age at presentation was 12.13 ± 4.6 years. Equine recurrent uveitis was bilateral in 93.6% of horses and was severe in 59.4% of eyes at presentation. Bilateral blindness was present in 59.4% of horses at last follow-up. Of 27 horses available for follow-up, 63% were euthanized due to ERU. No significant differences in age, severity, blindness, or rate of euthanasia were noted between Appaloosas and other breeds. The Appaloosa is at increased risk for ERU, which is a devastating ocular disease.

Expected consequences of convenience euthanasia perceived by veterinarians in Quebec

Dominick Rathwell-Deault, Béatrice Godard, Diane Frank, Béatrice Doizé (page 723)

In companion animal practice, convenience euthanasia (euthanasia of a physically and psychologically healthy animal) is recognized as one of the most difficult situations. There is little published on veterinary perceptions of the consequences of convenience euthanasia. A qualitative study on the subject based on interviews with 14 veterinarians was undertaken. The animal's interests in the dilemma of convenience euthanasia was taken into consideration, strictly from the point of view of the physical suffering and stress related to the procedure. The veterinarian's goal was to respect the animal's interests by controlling physical pain. Most often, veterinarians made their own interests and those of the owners a priority when considering the consequences of their decision to perform or refuse convenience euthanasia.

Cardiovascular effects of constant rate infusions of lidocaine, lidocaine and dexmedetomidine, and dexmedetomidine in dogs anesthetized at equipotent doses of sevoflurane

Rafael Moran-Muñoz, Alexander Valverde, J.A. Ibancovichi, Carlos M. Acevedo-Arcique, Sergio Recillas-Morales, Pedro Sanchez-Aparicio, Jorge Osorio-Avalos, Julio Raul Chavez-Monteagudo (page 729)

This study evaluated the cardiovascular effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine, lidocaine and dexmedetomidine, and dexmedetomidine in dogs anesthetized with sevoflurane at equipotent doses. Treatments consisted of T1-Lidocaine [loading dose 2 mg/kg body weight (BW), IV, and CRI of 100 µg/kg BW per min] at 1.4% end-tidal of sevoflurane (FESEV); T2-Dexmedetomidine (loading dose 2 µg/kg BW, IV, and CRI of 2 µg/kg BW per hour) and FESEV 1.1%; and T3-Lidocaine-Dexmedetomidine using the same doses of T1 and T2 and FESEV 0.8%. Constant rate infusion of lidocaine did not induce any cardiovascular changes; lidocaine and dexmedetomidine resulted in cardiovascular effects similar to dexmedetomidine alone. These effects were characterized by a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, oxygen delivery, and pulmonary vascular resistance index, and a significant (P < 0.001) increase in mean and diastolic arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance index, pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure and oxygen extraction ratio, compared with baseline values. In conclusion, a CRI of lidocaine combined with dexmedetomidine produces significant cardiovascular changes similar to those observed with dexmedetomidine alone.

Comparison of an online learning module to hands-on training in teaching a cautery disbudding technique for dairy calves including cornual nerve block application

Charlotte B. Winder, Stephen J. LeBlanc, Derek B. Haley, Kerry D. Lissemore, M. Ann Godkin, Todd F. Duffield (page 735)

Disbudding and dehorning are common procedures on dairy farms. In a recent survey of Ontario dairy producers, 38% reported not using local anesthetic for these procedures. Use of pain control is important for both calf welfare and industry sustainability. Use of local anesthetic requires technical training, typically provided by a veterinarian, although online training videos also exist. Neither method has been studied for efficacy. Our objective was to compare an online module to hands-on training in teaching naïve participants (veterinary students) to effectively carry out a cornual nerve block and disbud a dairy calf. Participants were assigned to either an online or hands-on training group. Although no statistical differences were seen in success of the nerve block, online learners were less confident and had poorer technical skills. While online learning was surprisingly effective for a psycho-motor skill, best practices should include hands-on training.

Brief Communications

Efficiency of medetomidine for epidural analgesia: Effects on isoflurane requirement and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in dogs

Ryota Watanabe, Yukihiro Fujita (page 742)

Five healthy beagle dogs anesthetized with isoflurane were administered medetomidine (α-2 adrenoceptor agonist) by the epidural route. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and end-tidal concentration of isoflurane (ISO) were measured 1, 2.5, and 4 h after administration. Epidural administration of medetomidine reduced the isoflurane dose required to prevent changes in vital parameters following mechanical stimulation and maintained the MAP at a higher level compared to the control.

Canine oral papillomavirus outbreak at a dog daycare facility

Heather E. Lane, J. Scott Weese, Jason W. Stull (page 747)

This report describes an outbreak at a dog daycare facility where 13 of 52 dogs developed suspected canine papillomavirus (CPV) infection. Based on contact tracing, subclinical CPV shedding was speculated. Active surveillance, exclusion of animals with active or recent infection and cohort formation may have been effective in stopping the outbreak.


(page 655)



A Revision of the Veterinarian's Oath
Karol A. Mathews (page 647)


Advocacy is key
Troy Bourque (page 649)


(page 651)


Heather Broughton, Isabelle Vallières (page 657)


(page 669)


Is melatonin of value in cancer treatment? Experience with a case of feline mammary carcinoma
Beverly Baxter (page 750)


Non-DVM wages and trends across Canada
Chris Doherty (page 753)


Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Marina L. Leis, Bianca S. Bauer, Bruce H. Grahn (page 757)


Avian Medicine and Surgery in Practice: Companion and Aviary Birds, 2nd edition
Douglas Whiteside (page 702)

Saunders Handbook of Veterinary Drugs: Small and Large Animals, 4th edition
Monica Rosati (page 728)

Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd edition
Douglas Whiteside (page 740)



(page 716)


(page 734)


(page 741)


(page 759)