CJVR - July 2022, Vol. 86, No. 3



Comparison of surgeon experience using simple interrupted and simple continuous suture patterns in intestinal resection and anastomosis

Christina M. Fruehwald, Penny J. Regier, Kaitlyn M. Mullen, Monica Waln, Kaitlyn L. McNamara, James Colee (page 165)

This experimental study compared leak pressures and completion time of intestinal anastomoses performed by novice veterinarians and a Board-certified surgeon using simple interrupted and simple continuous suture patterns. Grossly normal jejunal segments (n = 108) from 6 fresh canine cadavers were used to harvest 8-cm cooled canine cadaveric jejunal segments that were randomly assigned to a control group (12 segments) and 4 treatment groups (24 segments/group, 12 constructs/group): i) simple interrupted anastomoses performed by a Board-certified surgeon (BSI); ii) simple continuous anastomoses performed by a Board-certified surgeon (BSC); iii) simple interrupted anastomoses performed by novice veterinarians (NSI); and iv) simple continuous anastomoses performed by novice veterinarians (NSC). Median (range) initial leak pressure (ILP) for control was 400.2 mmHg (226.0 to 500.0 mmHg), BSI 37.4 (14.4 to 124.0), BSC 32.5 (13.4 to 91.0), NSI 36.5 (22.9 to 62.0), and NSC 47.5 (8.9 to 120.0). No difference was noted between experience (P = 0.73, P = 0.53), suture technique (P = 0.07, P = 0.38), or across treatment groups (P = 0.17, P = 0.94), for ILP or MIP (maximum intraluminal pressure), respectively. Time to construct completion differed based on suture technique (P < 0.0001) and experience (P < 0.0001). The median and mean ILP of all anastomoses exceeded physiologic intraluminal peristaltic pressures. Simple continuous anastomoses were faster to complete overall. Both handsewn anastomosis techniques are appropriate for intestinal anastomoses.

Preliminary study of the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and behavioral and select physiological effects of morphine 6-glucuronide (M6G) following intravenous administration to horses

Briana D. Hamamoto-Hardman, Eugene P. Steffey, Kelsey Seminoff, Daniel S. McKemie, Philip Kass, Heather K. Knych (page 172)

Although morphine has demonstrated antinociceptive effects in horses, its administration has been associated with dose-dependent adverse effects. In humans and rats, part of the analgesic effect of morphine has been attributed to the active metabolite, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). Although morphine can cause several undesirable effects, M6G has a more favorable safety profile. The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and behavioral and select physiological effects of M6G following intravenous administration to a small group of horses. In Part 1 of the study, 3 horses received a single intravenous administration of saline, 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) M6G, or 0.5 mg/kg BW morphine in a 3-way crossover design. Blood samples were collected up to 96 hours post-administration, concentrations of drug and metabolites measured, and pharmacokinetics determined. Behavioral and physiological effects were then recorded. In Part 2 of the study, 2 horses scheduled to be euthanized for other reasons, were administered 0.5 mg/kg BW M6G. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and various tissue samples were collected post-administration and concentrations of drug were determined. The clearance of M6G was more rapid and the volume of distribution at steady state was smaller for M6G compared to morphine. A reaction characterized by head shaking, pawing, and slight ataxia was observed immediately following administration of both morphine and M6G to horses. After M6G administration, these behaviors subsided rapidly and were followed by a longer period of sedation. Following administration, M6G was detected in the kidney, liver, CSF, and regions of the brain. Results of this study encourage further investigation of M6G in order to assess its clinical feasibility as an analgesic in horses.

Changes in glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in a cohort of cats with chronic obesity

Ruchita P. Ahuja, Jon M. Fletcher, L. Abbigail Granger, Chin-Chi Liu, Bruna Miessler, Mark A. Mitchell (page 181)

Obesity, which is the most common spontaneous nutritional disorder in cats, is a known risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus and has been linked to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and altered adipose-derived hormone secretion in cats. The objective of this study was to monitor and report changes in the results of serial intravenous glucose tolerance testing (IVGTT) and other metabolic parameters in 4 obese cats over a 4-year period. Serial IVGTT, insulin sensitivity indices, adipokine concentrations, and lipid profiles were evaluated. All cats had IVGTT changes consistent with impaired glucose tolerance and altered insulin secretory patterns during the 4-year study period. There was no significant increase in the fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations and no changes in the insulin sensitivity indices evaluated. The mean adiponectin concentration decreased significantly over time, but there was no significant increase in the leptin concentration and no changes were observed in lipid profiles. Although IVGTT can be used to document early and/or mild impairment of glucose tolerance and changes in insulin secretory pattern, this test cannot be easily or readily carried out on client-owned cats in most clinical settings. More work needs to be done to establish reliable, convenient methods for earlier identification of cats at risk of developing clinical diabetes mellitus.

Evaluation of mechanical properties of self-expanding metal stents for optimization of tracheal collapse in dogs

Ji-Hyun Kim, Jin-Young Choi, Hun-Young Yoon (page 188)

The objective of this study was to compare the mechanical properties, including radial, axial, and bending forces, of various self-expanding metal stents with different wire diameters. The radial forces generated through longitudinal and cylindrical compression, along with axial and bending forces, were measured and used to evaluate the mechanical properties of 3 types of self-expanding metal stents (n = 3); the most suitable type was further assessed with 4 different wire diameters (n = 3). The D-type stent (double-wire woven uncovered nitinol stent) had the highest radial force and the lowest axial force and hence, was the most suitable for clinical use; however, its bending force was the lowest, corroborating the results of the axial force measurements. Therefore, the D-type stent was further evaluated using the following wire diameters: i) 0.127, ii) 0.152, iii) 0.178, and iv) 0.203 mm. When the wire diameter was increased by 0.025 mm, the measured radial, axial, and bending forces increased significantly. Thus, the adequate wire diameter should be determined based on the anatomical structure of stents. The mechanical properties of self-expanding stents should be considered in selecting the optimal design for tracheal collapse in dogs.

Clinical, laboratory, and morphological diagnosis of diseases in the oviducts and paraovarian structures of cows

Evgeny Skovorodin, Svetlana Bogolyuk, Alena Yurina (page 194)

The objective of this research was to study the spread of diseases in the oviducts and paraovarian structures of cows diagnosed using clinical, laboratory, and morphological analysis methods. Rectal examinations of 283 cows were conducted on farms to study their reproductive function. A thorough morphological study of the reproductive organs was carried out and the ovaries and uterus were weighed and measured. The method to detect blockage of the oviducts involved filling the oviducts with air under excessive pressure and assessing the patency based on the pressure drop. During postmortem macroscopic examination of the reproductive organs of infertile cows, the most common diseases of the oviducts and pathology of paraovarian structures detected were hydrosalpinx (6.9%), cysts on oviduct walls (3.4%), ovarian-bursal adhesions (37.8%), cysts and adhesions in the mesovarian ligament and mesosalpinx (17.0%), cysts of the ovary network (3.4%), and serous inclusion cysts on the surface of the ovary (6.9%). Clinically pronounced pathology of the oviducts was detected in 2.5% of infertile cows. The proposed method for diagnosing obstruction of the oviducts made it possible to find the hidden pathology of these organs, which manifested itself in increased patency and relative and total obstruction.

Comparison of home blood pressure and office blood pressure measurement in dogs and cats

Siu To Koo, Anthony P. Carr (page 203)

The objectives of this study were to retrospectively compare blood pressure measurements obtained in clinic with those obtained at home from cats and dogs seen at our hospital and to investigate the potential for white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) in this population of 10 cats and 7 dogs. Medical records from Western College of Veterinary Medicine were searched to identify patients with paired home and in-clinic blood pressure measurements taken within 14 d. The results were compared with matched-pair analysis to determine the agreement and bias. Significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured in the clinic compared with those from home measurements. A mean difference of +27.7 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): 17.1 to 38.3 mmHg, P < 0.001] and +12.9 mmHg (95% CI: 6.4 to 19.5 mmHg, P = 0.0007) was found for systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively. The prevalence of WCH in this population was 41%. A total of 39% of home blood pressure measurements by owners were free of artefacts as evaluated by waveforms on high-definition oscillometry (HDO) devices. The results of this study showed that blood pressure measurements taken at home and at a clinic varied significantly, which was attributed to a high prevalence of white-coat effect and white-coat hypertension in this clinical population.

Validation of 3-dimensional mathematical computation of feline bladder volume using orthogonal ultrasonographic bladder images

Chien Hsien Kitty Yang, Shane W. Bateman, Xiu Ting Yiew, Allan R. Willms (page 209)

Urine output measurement is critical for the management of hospitalized cats and their underlying conditions. Ultrasound-guided estimation of urinary bladder volume (UBV) is a non-invasive surrogate measurement that can provide important clinical information. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of a novel 3D computation method in estimating UBV using 2D point-of-care ultrasonographic images. Bladder volume estimation was performed using coordinates from bladder circumference tracings on paired longitudinal and transverse ultrasonographic images (n = 359) aligned in 3D space for mathematical algorithmic computation. Ultrasonographic images were obtained by 2 different observers at 18 different time points on 10 healthy, purpose-bred male cats under general anesthesia in sternal recumbency. Actual urine volumes were measured via urinary catheterization and compared to UBV estimations using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Estimation of UBV using the 3D computational bladder circumference tracing method showed moderate strength-of-agreement with actual bladder volume (ρc = 0.94 to 0.95) with clinically insignificant bias (3D computation-derived minus actual volume) of −1.96 mL (IQR = −3.89 to −0.57 mL, P < 0.001) and −2.42 mL (IQR = −4.64 to −0.66 mL, P < 0.001) for the 2 observers, respectively. Our study demonstrated acceptable accuracy of 3D computation method for UBV estimation in healthy cats. This method may provide a bridging alternative until 3D ultrasound becomes more readily accessible.

Genealogy of an in-vivo passaged isolate of western Canadian bovine respiratory syncytial virus

John Ellis, Jacqueline Marx, Sudeep Perumbakkam, Keith West, Sheryl Gow, Stacey Lacoste, Avinash Gururaja, Aleksandar Masic, Britany Nehring Lappin, Chadwick Brice, Suman M. Mahan (page 218)

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a primary respiratory pathogen in calves. Clinical infection with this pathogen has been experimentally modelled to assess vaccine efficacy using a field isolate (Asquith) of BRSV that has been sequentially passaged in vivo in neonatal calves to maintain virulence. The objective of this retrospective cumulative analysis of passages over approximately 20 years was to determine if there have been any changes in the viral genome of this isolate because of this process. Sequence analyses indicated that the Asquith isolate placed genetically in a clade comprising US and some European isolates and a recently described Chinese BRSV isolate (DQ). Furthermore, there were rare changes in bases over time in the N, G, and F gene segments examined when comparing among different passages ranging from 1996 to 2019. These results indicated the absence of significant mutations in the absence of significant adaptive immunological pressure.

Short Communications

Prevalence of protective feline panleukopenia antibody titers detected by a point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cats presenting to a university emergency service

Kimberly Golden, Elizabeth Rozanski, Sam Rizika, Ian DeStefano (page 229)

The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of protective antibody titers against feline panleukopenia (FPL) in cats presenting to an emergency service. Seventy-five cats presenting for care for any injury or illness were eligible for inclusion. Using American Association of Feline Practitioners guidelines, vaccine status — up-to-date, not up-to-date, or unconfirmed — was recorded. Titers against FPL were semi-quantified using a point-of-care test and were classified as protective or non-protective. Of the 75 cats enrolled, 49 had protective titers (65%), whereas 26 (35%) did not. Fifty cats (66.7%) were considered up-to-date, whereas 25 cats (33.3%) were not up-to-date or unconfirmed. Not all up-to-date cats had positive titers and some cats with lapsed vaccines were still considered protected. Of the up-to-date cats, 35/50 (70%) had protective titers, whereas 15 (30%) did not. Of the 25 cats that were not up-to-date, titers were considered protective in 14 (56%) and absent in 11 (44%). This study supports that even in cats considered up-to-date, it is possible that adequate protection against FPL is not present. Care should be taken to appropriately isolate cats affected with illness attributable to FPL from other cats and prevent inadvertent nosocomial transmission.

Age-related changes in the electrophoresis pattern of serum proteins in Korean indigenous calves

Jaeho An, Myunghwan Yang, Jin-Hee Kang, Ji-yeong Ku, Seung-Eon Cha, Minwoong Seo, Kwang-Man Park, Jinho Park (page 233)

This study aimed to investigate changes in the serum protein profiles of healthy newborn Korean calves and provide a reference index for these changes during growth. The serum protein composition of 15 healthy bovine calves aged 1 week to 4 months was analyzed using electrophoresis. The albumin to globulin (A/G) ratio increased until calves reached 2 months (1.3 ± 0.2) and then decreased until they reached 4 months (1.1 ± 0.1). Albumin concentrations increased up to month 2 (3.4 ± 0.1) and decreased until month 4 (3.2 ± 0.2). α-1 globulin concentrations decreased up to week 4 (0.4 ± 0.1) and then increased until month 2 (0.6 ± 0.1). γ globulin decreased until month 2 (0.7 ± 0.2) and then increased until month 4 (1.1 ± 0.3). These age-related changes in protein concentrations indicate the importance of considering age in calf blood tests. The γ globulin concentration was at its highest in the first week, due to colostrum intake, and decreased to reach its lowest at 2 months, when passive maternal immunity is also at its lowest. Therefore, provision of sufficient passive immunity through the colostrum in neonatal calves might enable healthy growth.