CVJ - May 2022, Vol. 63, No. 5


Case Reports

Neonatal hyperleukocytosis and regenerative anemia in a septic puppy

Aleksandra Milaszewska, Beth Hanselman, Gary Kwok Cheong Lee, R. Darren Wood, Anthony Abrams Ogg (page 491)

This paper reports a case of neonatal hyperleukocytosis in a dog due to a bacterial infection. A 3-week-old, mixed-breed dog was brought to a veterinary college referral center with a history of weight loss despite a good appetite. Clinical and laboratory examinations included: physical examination, complete blood (cell) count (CBC), serum biochemistry profile, abdominal ultrasound examination, and cytology of liver and bone marrow aspirates.

The CBC showed hyperleukocytosis of 158.0 × 109/L (RI: 2.1 to 21.2 × 109/L) and hematocrit of 0.19 L/L (RI: 0.21 to 0.34 L/L). The strong leukemoid reaction was comprised of neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. The dog was diagnosed with Staphylococcus pseudointermedius liver infection based on liver aspirates and culture. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was prescribed. A recheck abdominal ultrasound and CBC repeated 4 wk after initial examination were unremarkable. Neonatal hyperleukocytosis is well-described in human medicine but veterinary studies in small animal neonates are scarce.

Key clinical message:
Hyperleukocytosis in adult dogs may be caused by leukemia or leukemoid reactions. Generalized sepsis is a leading cause of leukemoid reactions in adult dogs and cats. In puppies, neoplasia is less likely, and other causes should be investigated. Similar to human neonates, puppies can mount a strong leukemoid reaction during an infection, even if it is not a generalized septic process.

Adjunct ambrisentan therapy had clinical benefits in 5 dogs with sildenafil-refractory pulmonary hypertension

Seijirow Goya, Tomohiko Yoshida, Shigeharu Sennba, Tsuyoshi Uchide, Ryou Tanaka (page 497)

Although sildenafil is used in dogs with severe pulmonary hypertension, they sometimes become resistant and clinical signs deteriorate over time. The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of adjunct ambrisentan therapy in dogs with sildenafil-refractory pulmonary hypertension. In 5 dogs with severe pulmonary hypertension with deteriorating clinical signs despite ongoing sildenafil treatment, adding ambrisentan improved appetite, activity, and respiratory functions. Although peak tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity, as measured by Doppler echocardiography, did not necessarily decrease after ambrisentan administration, there was improved partial pressure of arterial oxygen and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, with no apparent side effects. We concluded that ambrisentan has potential as an adjunct treatment in dogs with pulmonary hypertension that are refractory to sildenafil therapy.

Key clinical message:
Ambrisentan improved clinical signs in dogs with sildenafil-refractory pulmonary hypertension.

Obstructive struvite ureterolithiasis in 4-month-old intact male Bernese mountain dog

Jennifer Ho, Justin Lavallée (page 504)

A 4-month-old, 7 kg, intact male, Bernese mountain dog was presented for obstructive struvite ureterolithiasis. Multiple urethroliths, ureteroliths, and urocystoliths were present. Based on an abdominal ultrasound, there was severe left hydronephrosis and hydroureter from distal ureterolith obstruction, just proximal to the vesicoureteral junction. The dog was not azotemic. Successful treatment was accomplished via ventral cystotomy. Bladder wall culture revealed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. No predisposing cause was identified. There are no known genetic predispositions in Bernese mountain dogs for struvite urolithiasis. The urinary tract infection resolved with surgical retrieval of the uroliths and antibiotic treatment. The dog remained clinically normal after the cystotomy but developed a subclinical urinary tract infection 4 mo post-operatively.

Key clinical message:
Urolithiasis is rare in pediatric veterinary patients. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of obstructive ureterolithiasis in a puppy. There is no known genetic predisposition for urolithiasis in Bernese mountain dogs.

Usefulness of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging for diagnosing primary vascular ectasia in a dog

Morgane I. Mantelli, Rafael Bernardes, Alexandra Corsaletti, Marcel Aumann, Patricia Meynaud, Rachel Lavoué (page 511)

A 2-year-old spayed female crossbred dog was presented for profuse, acute, and chronic vaginal hemorrhage. Coagulation disorders were excluded. Conventional diagnostic imaging failed to precisely identify the source of bleeding. After whole-blood transfusion, magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging allowed the visualization of unique vascular patterns within the vaginal wall. Presumptive diagnosis of vaginal vascular ectasia was made and confirmed by histopathological examination. Surgical management with subtotal vaginectomy cured the dog.

Key clinical message:
Vascular ectasia is rarely reported in veterinary medicine and is challenging to diagnose. This is apparently the first report of the usefulness of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging as a diagnostic tool for vascular ectasia in a dog.

Computed tomography of testicular torsion in a juvenile dog with unilateral cryptorchidism

Sarah A. Slaughter, Andrew D. Eitzer, Sara E. Tolliver, Sarah N. Holman, Sara A. Colopy, Seamus E. Hoey, Samantha J. Loeber (page 515)

A 14-week-old male unilaterally cryptorchid Clumber spaniel was presented for acute lethargy. Physical examination revealed abdominal pain, and a single testis was palpated in the scrotum. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) revealed a poorly vascularized, ovoid structure immediately caudal to the left kidney with scant regional peritoneal effusion. Left intra-abdominal testicular torsion was confirmed at surgery, and routine cryptorchidectomy was performed. The patient recovered uneventfully from anesthesia and surgery.

Key clinical message:
The most common CT characteristics of testicular torsion were present in this case and correlated well with sonographic findings to allow for rapid, accurate diagnosis and surgical planning of unilateral, non-neoplastic, intra-abdominal cryptorchid testicular torsion in a juvenile dog. Contrast enhanced CT facilitated accurate localization of the undescended testis and evaluation of testicular perfusion and may be a useful alternative to ultrasound for diagnosing testicular torsion, especially in indeterminate cases.


Biomechanical analysis of 3 fixation techniques in rabbit radius and humerus bones

Meghan L. Davolt, Ella Davis, Brynn McCleery, Garrett Davis (page 521)

The objective of this study was to compare the strength and stiffness of various fixation methods applied to the long bones of the rabbit forelimb. Twenty rabbit radius/ulna and 20 rabbit humeri were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Control bones remained intact, whereas all others were osteotomized to create fracture models that were fixated with locking plate and locking screws (LP), veterinary cuttable plate (VCP) with cortical screws, or external skeletal fixator constructs (ESF), and tested in 4-point bending until failure. Load/deformation curves were generated for each sample and used to calculate stiffness (slope of the curve) and strength (load to failure). Intact controls had greater strength and stiffness than any fixation techniques in the rabbit radius/ulna and humeri samples. Locking plate and VCP constructs had greater stiffness than ESF when applied to the radius, whereas locking plate constructs were stronger than VCP or ESF when applied to the humerus. Overall, the LP construct had characteristics most closely resembling those of the intact control regarding strength in the humerus. Therefore, fracture fixation with a LP would provide the greatest strength in humeral fracture repairs in the rabbit.

Investigation of the distance to slaughterhouses and weather parameters in the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome outbreaks in U.S. swine breeding herds

Justin Moeller, Jerry Mount, Emily Geary, Magnus R. Campler, Cesar A. Corzo, Robert B. Morrison, Andréia G. Arruda (page 528)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting the swine industry. The main objective of this study was to assess whether sow farm distance to slaughterhouses and meteorological variables were associated with PRRS outbreaks. This case-control study paired 104 sow farms with or without a reported PRRS outbreak (N = 208) during the same period. Data on the distance to the closest slaughterhouse, swine density, presence of an air filtration system, or a neighboring farm, and weather conditions were collected, and a multivariable conditional logistic regression model was created to investigate the association between variables of interest and the occurrence of a PRRS outbreak.

Swine density, presence of an air filtration system, presence of a neighboring farm, and PRRS herd-level status before the outbreak were associated with the occurrence of PRRS outbreaks. Farms in areas with higher swine density and nearby swine farms had increased odds of reporting an outbreak compared to farms in low swine density areas and farms having no neighbors. Under the conditions of this study, none of the meteorological variables or the distance to the closest slaughterhouse were associated with occurrence of PRRS outbreaks.

Comparison between barbed and conventional sutures for longitudinal thelotomy closure in an ex-vivo bovine model

Neshan W. Sarkisian, Pierre-Yves Mulon (page 535)

To determine differences in suture time and bursting strength on a longitudinal thelotomy closure using innovative barbed versus conventional smooth suture materials.

Sample population
Twenty-four teats from 6 udders of culled beef cows.

Study design
Experimental ex-vivo surgical study.

Thelotomies (length: 2 cm) were performed on every teat and randomly allocated to closure with either a 3-0 bidirectional barbed suture for both mucosa and connective layers or a conventional 3-layer suture, using 3-0 smooth polydioxanone. For both groups, skin was closed with 2-0 polypropylene monofilament suture. Duration of suturing time for inner layers and bursting strength of the repair were recorded and compared.

Suturing was faster with barbed versus conventional sutures (527.7 ± 64.5 versus 727.1 ± 60.7 s, respectively; P < 0.0001). However, bursting strength was not significantly different between the 2 types of sutures.

Using the barbed suture significantly reduced the time required to suture the mucosa and conjunctiva layers, with no significant difference between sutures in their bursting strength.

Clinical significance
Bidirectional barbed suture material is suitable for closure of thelotomies in cattle.

Brief Communication

Euthanasia of honey-bee colonies: Proposal of a standard method

Christophe Roy, Nicolas Vidal-Naquet (page 541)

Honey bees are most often kept for production purposes. Sanitary, regulatory, or zootechnical circumstances may lead the beekeeper or the veterinarian to dispose of a honey-bee colony. Unfortunately and at present, no standard method of euthanasia exists, leaving the door open to many more or less acceptable practices. Based on a short survey of current practices in 8 countries, we list and rank these methods. Although imperfect, the sulfur dioxide technique appears to be the most efficient. We suggest that it should become the reference method to be taught and incorporated into veterinary and regulatory guidelines.

Quiz Corner

(page 477)


Letter to the Editor

Volunteering after retirement from veterinary medicine — A comment

Karol A. Mathews (page 465)

Volunteer work after retirement — A response

Jan Robinson (page 465)

Simultaneous occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease and trichomonosis in a Maine coon cat — A comment

Christian Hansen-Jones (page 466)

President’s Message

What about the bond?

Louis Kwantes (page 469)

Veterinary Medical Ethics

(page 473)


Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault (page 479)

Cross-Canada Disease Report

Avian pathogens identification and genomic characterization: 2021 annual review of the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, Université de Montréal

Carl A. Gagnon, Véronique Bournival, Marika Koszegi, Nicolas Nantel-Fortier, Valérie Grenier St-Sauveur, Chantale Provost, Stéphane Lair (page 486)

Veterinary Dermatology

Feline plasma cell pododermatitis

Gabrielle Brosseau (page 545)

Diagnostic Ophthalmology

Marina L. Leis, Lynne S. Sandmeyer (page 549)

Veterinary Practice Management

What message are you sending with your examination fee?

Darren Osborne, Chris Doherty (page 551)


Index of Advertisers

(page 520)


(page 544)


(page 554)