CVJ - November 2021, Vol. 62, No. 11


Case Reports

Unmasking of left heart dilation following treatment for precapillary pulmonary hypertension

Sarah Rogg, Justin D. Thomason, Nathan Boyd (page 1177)

A 13-year-old spayed female dog was referred for a history of tachypnea and dyspnea. Severe pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed based on tricuspid regurgitation velocities and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Left atrial size was normal at the time of this diagnosis. However, following treatment with a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, echocardiography revealed unmasking of left heart dilation.

Key clinical message: If phosphodiesterase inhibition therapy is deemed appropriate in patients with hemodynamically important myxomatous mitral valvular disease, using the lowest effective dosage and careful monitoring with echocardiography ± thoracic radiographs should be considered.

A case of papillary squamous cell carcinoma in the mandible of a young French bulldog

Kensuke Furuta, Kotaro Nishi, Chun-Ho Park, Kenichi Maeda, Satomi Iwai, Iwao Sakonjyu, Kazunori Saigami, Shozo Okano (page 1181)

A 7-month-old castrated French bulldog was presented with a left-sided mandibular tumor. The initial tumor biopsy diagnosis was ameloblastoma. The owner brought this dog the Kitasato University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for more detailed examination and treatment. Computed tomography revealed a tumor on the left lateral mandibular gingiva from the caudal third of the incisor tooth to the right canine tooth, associated with severe amorphous osteolysis of the mandibular bone. The tumor was surgically excised and diagnosed as papillary squamous cell carcinoma. Currently, 2514 d (6.9 y) since the operation, the dog is healthy, without recurrence.

Key clinical message: Although papillary squamous cell carcinoma is rare, many cases have been reported in the oral cavity of medium- to large-sized dogs. Based on this report, papillary squamous cell carcinoma can occur in small dogs such as young French bulldogs and a good prognosis can be achieved with proper resection.

Silicone allergy associated with intraocular silicone ball prosthesis in a dog

Yuichiro Muramatsu, Usio Fukushima, Soroku Kudo, Takumi Akatsuka, Kenichiro Ono, Hidehiro Hirao (page 1185)

A 13-year-old, male Pomeranian dog was presented for scleral rupture with intraocular hemorrhage and retinal detachment in the right eye. After intrascleral silicone ball prosthesis, recurrent swelling and granulomatous blepharitis were observed for 140 d and finally melting keratitis developed. Although an intraorbital prosthesis was implanted, recurrent, serious, erosive, and ulcerative blepharitis developed with high plasma C-reactive protein concentrations. Since the blepharitis could not be controlled, the silicone ball was removed and the affected orbit was debrided. The blepharitis resolved rapidly, and the orbit healed routinely. Positive allergic reactions to silicone were discovered through a patch test.

Key clinical message: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on silicone allergy in a dog with positive allergic reactions to silicone in the patch test.

Inflammatory bowel disease characterized by multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease (MEED) in a horse in Saskatchewan, Canada

Claudia Cruz Villagrán, Debora Vogt, Ashish Gupta, Enrique Aburto Fernández (page 1190)

A 3-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated for chronic weight loss, diarrhea, and pruritus. Physical examination revealed several ulcerative lesions on the skin and mucosal membranes. Diagnostic imaging findings were consistent with enteritis, typhlitis, and colitis. Multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease (MEED) was diagnosed upon necropsy. This disease may be considered a form of equine inflammatory bowel disease complex which can be challenging to diagnose, requiring histological assessment, and in some cases, the use of immunohistochemical markers.

Key clinical message: Multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease is challenging to diagnose but should be considered in horses with chronic weight loss that fail to respond to conventional treatment for concurrent diarrhea and skin lesions.

Review Articles

Veterinary Practice — The Canadian multinational veterinary workforce

Terry L. Whiting (page 1195)

The veterinary profession, from acceptance to veterinary college to retirement, has experienced extensive organizational change in the past 3 decades. This paper is an attempt to understand the context and complexity of national workforce planning in veterinary medicine in Canada. It identifies the obvious practical and ethical considerations, exposing inherent problems in guiding the future of the profession. The discourse concludes there is a structural deficiency in veterinary education program capacity in Canada (practical fact) and Canadian youth may have increasingly difficult access to tertiary education (ethical concern). Adaptation, rather than planning, characterizes current practices in which migration of foreign-trained veterinarians mitigates the structural deficiency in training capacity. Due to the pervasive adoption of neo-liberal marketing principles in tertiary education, a nationally self-sufficient Canadian veterinary college infrastructure is an unlikely future possibility. Our current system, reliant on migration of internationally trained professionals, raises questions of global justice and individual rights. Strategic solutions require reflection on veterinary professional identity, broad discussion, and a commitment to a rigorous concept of professional responsibilities, global citizenship, and the public good.


Respiratory complications in dogs with tetanus: A retrospective study of 53 cases

Miriam Guedra, Stefano Cortellini, Karen Humm (page 1202)

Tetanus can lead to respiratory complications, and the outcome of dogs affected by this disease is still largely unknown. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the frequency and outcome of 53 dogs with tetanus and respiratory complications between February 2006 and January 2019.

Medical records from dogs diagnosed with tetanus admitted to a referral teaching hospital were reviewed. Fifty-three dogs were diagnosed with tetanus and respiratory complications were observed in 26.4% (14/53) of dogs; 8 developed aspiration pneumonia (AP), 5 developed upper airway obstruction (UAO) and 1 dog developed both. A total of 5 AP dogs were mechanically ventilated. Three dogs with UAO had tracheostomy tubes placed. Dogs with respiratory complications had a poorer outcome, with only 14.3% (2/14) surviving to discharge, compared to 94.8% (37/39) for dogs with no respiratory complications. Respiratory complications such as AP and UAO were common in dogs with tetanus, and this was associated with a poorer outcome.

Investigation and validation of a novel Endo GIA stapler for canine lung lobectomies

Alissa W. St. Blanc, Rebecca A. Csomos (page 1207)

The objectives of this study were to validate the 2.0 mm Endo GIA stapler for lung lobectomies and to compare procedural time and air leakage incidence with suture ligation. Sixteen canine cadavers, 18 to 27 kg, were randomly assigned to undergo lung lobectomy of the right middle lung lobe through intercostal thoracotomy, after which suture ligation or the 2.0 mm Endo GIA stapler was used. Procedural time was recorded. Following the lobectomy, the thoracic cavity was filled with fluid. Positive pressure ventilation was used to hold pressure at 20 cm H2O for 5 minutes. The bronchus was assessed for air leakage as evidenced by visualization of gas bubbles and the ability to maintain positive pressure. Procedural time and air leakage incidence were compared between groups.

By these assessments, the 2.0 mm Endo GIA stapler was successful for lung lobectomies in all cadavers. There was no significant difference (t = −0.856, P = 0.407) in body weight by procedure assignment. Procedural time was significantly shorter (P < 0.0001) using the Endo GIA stapler compared to suture ligation. There was no significant correlation (r = 0.044, P = 0.873) between body weight and procedural time. There were no incidents of air leakage in either group. The 2.0 mm Endo GIA stapler may be used as an alternative device for lung lobectomies in canine cadavers. Smaller staples may provide more complete compression of hilar vessels and bronchi, resulting in reduced hemorrhage, air leakage, and thoracic contamination in cases with infection or neoplasia.

Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ketoprofen when compounded with iron dextran for use in nursing piglets

Kristen J. Reynolds, Ron Johnson, Robert M. Friendship, Jennifer Brown, Saad Enouri, Ronette Gehring, Terri L. O’Sullivan (page 1211)

In Canada, piglets receive analgesia to control pain after surgical castration. There is interest in examining the potential to mix non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with iron dextran prior to injection to minimize piglet handling and labor. The objective of this study was to compare pharmacokinetics and the relative bioavailability of ketoprofen given alone (3.0 mg/kg IM) versus the same dose of ketoprofen mixed with iron dextran (52.8 mg/kg IM) (ketoprofen + iron dextran) before injection in piglets. Piglets 8 to 11 d old were allocated into 2 treatment groups (n = 8/group). Plasma drug concentrations were measured using mass spectrometry at 13 time points after injection. No significant differences were detected between the 2 groups when examining pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., Cmax, Tmax, AUC) or relative bioavailability for either S- or R-ketoprofen enantiomers (P > 0.05). However, pain control efficacy and food safety studies of these formulations are required to further examine this practice.

Caudal thigh intermuscular lipomas in dogs: Anatomic review and approach to surgical excision

Carly V. Sullivan, Joshua Zuckerman, Catherine Popovitch (page 1219)

The surgical approach for excision of caudal thigh intermuscular lipomas (IML) in dogs is described with relevant anatomy and short-term outcomes reported. Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent IML excision between 2015 to 2019. Signalment, location of the lipoma, pre-operative diagnostic tests, histopathology results, use of a closed-suction drain, and follow-up information including drain and suture removal were recorded. Mean age of patients in this study was 8.7 years. Multiple breeds were affected and there was no predilection for either left or right hind limb. Pre-operative diagnostic tests included fine-needle aspirate, radiography, peripheral ultrasonography, and/or computed tomography scan. In 45% (5/11) of the cases, a closed suction drain was placed. All masses removed were deemed grossly consistent with a lipoma by the attending clinician and 5 were confirmed by histopathology. No complications were noted in any case. Removal of caudal thigh IML requires careful identification of and dissection around the sciatic nerve, which is easily achieved with appropriate knowledge of the relevant anatomy and surgical approach.

Student Paper

Cutaneous staphylococcal granuloma in a cat

Morganna Turner (page 1225)

A 4.5-year-old domestic longhaired cat with a history of psychogenic alopecia and self-trauma exhibited progressive, severe, and extensive nodular and draining lesions on the ventral abdomen. Euthanasia was elected. A diagnosis of the rare skin disease, staphylococcal granuloma, was subsequently made based upon postmortem and histopathology findings.

Quiz Corner

(page 1167)


Letter to the Editor

Veterinarian shortage — Where have all the doctors gone?

Paul Francis (page 1161)

President's Message

Improving our tolerance and understanding

Louis Kwantes (page 1163)

Veterinary Medical Ethics

(page 1165)


Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault (page 1169)

Veterinary Wellness

Moving from compassion fatigue to compassion resilience
Part 5: Building personal resilience

Debbie L. Stoewen (page 1229)

Veterinary Practice Management

Continued acceleration: Trends in demand for and compensation of associate veterinarians

Chris Doherty (page 1233)

Veterinary Dermatology

Feline atopic syndrome — An update

Jangi Bajwa (page 1237)

Diagnostic Ophthalmology

Shayna Levitt, Stephanie Osinchuk, Lynne Sandmeyer (page 1241)


Lest we forget animals on Remembrance Day

Robert D. Ostrander (page 1245)


Industry News

(page 1232)

Index of Advertisers

(page 1240)


(page 1246)