CVJ - December 2021, Vol. 62, No. 12


Case Reports

Tracheal stenosis following endotracheal intubation in a dog

Hitomi Manabe, Masahiro Murakami, Allison Kendall, Caroline V. Fulkerson (page 1289)

A 2-month-old intact female Rottweiler was presented for investigation of coughing and respiratory distress 9 d after an exploratory laparotomy for intestinal foreign body removal. Tracheal stenosis was suspected by radiography and confirmed with computed tomography (CT) and tracheoscopy. After 1 wk of medical management, clinical signs had resolved and the severity of the tracheal narrowing was markedly improved, as confirmed by radiography and tracheoscopy. Tracheal stenosis is a considerable complication of endotracheal intubation in veterinary medicine and may be medically managed, depending on the severity of the tracheal injury.

Key clinical message: To our knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of tracheal stenosis resulting from endotracheal intubation in a dog and its resolution after medical management.

Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy with barbed suture in a ram

Benjamin T. Jakobek, Rebecca C. McOnie, Susan L. Fubini, Galina Hayes (page 1292)

A 7-month-old Hampshire ram, with no history of trauma or breeding, was referred for treatment of acute, unilateral scrotal swelling. Physical examination revealed a moderately sized, soft, left-sided, non-reducible swelling of the proximal scrotum and mild swelling of the scrotal neck. Ultrasound evaluation of the scrotum revealed morphologically normal testicles and a mild accumulation of free fluid in the left vaginal tunic. Unilateral, laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy under general anesthesia was performed. The herniated omentum was reduced and barbed suture was used to imbricate the internal inguinal ring and the vaginal ring. No recurrence of herniation was reported 5 months after surgery.

Key clinical message: Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy with barbed suture can be a safe and effective means of scrotal hernia resolution in a ram. When performed by a competent surgeon experienced in laparoscopy, this treatment for inguinal and scrotal herniation may minimize post-operative pain, provide a rapid return to function, and preserve normal testicular and scrotal anatomy.

Magnetic resonance imaging, clinicopathologic findings, and clinical progression of a puppy with confirmed Eastern equine encephalitis virus

Jessica A. Sun, Terry C. Hallowell (page 1298)

A 5-month-old puppy was evaluated for rapidly progressive neurologic signs and pyrexia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multifocal meningoencephalitis with transtentorial and foramen magnum herniation. A cerebrospinal fluid tap revealed highly cellular fluid, and the puppy was euthanized. Histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic meningoencephalitis. Viral polymerase chain reaction testing for Eastern equine encephalitis was positive. Rapid progression of neurologic signs and respiratory arrest necessitated mechanical ventilation. Severe hypernatremia, most consistent with central diabetes insipidus, developed.

Key clinical message: Transtentorial and foramen magnum herniation and high cerebrospinal fluid cell counts may be indicators of poor prognosis. Brain death, respiratory arrest, and central diabetes insipidus may also ensue with Eastern equine encephalitis infection.

Successful non-invasive management of iatrogenic splenic injury associated with a peritoneal dialysis catheter in a dog

Kanae Takada, Jennifer M. Loewen (page 1304)

An 11-month-old, intact female Labrador retriever was presented with oligoanuric acute kidney injury and overhydration after grape ingestion. Percutaneous placement of a 12G × 30 cm Mila chest tube was done as an emergency temporary peritoneal dialysis catheter. Although no serious immediate complications were noted, an iatrogenic splenic injury had occurred. The catheter was used for peritoneal dialysis and urine output and hydration status improved over time. When the dialysis catheter was removed 3 d later, a synthetic hemostatic matrix, Surgiflo, was deposited through the catheter. No complications were noted. The dog recovered uneventfully and was doing well with normal kidney function.

Key clinical message: To the authors’ knowledge, this report represents the first description of non-invasive management of iatrogenic splenic injury secondary to percutaneous peritoneal dialysis catheter placement in a dog.

Review Articles

Why must we rush to bury our dead (pigs): The option of excarnation by exposure

Terry L. Whiting (page 1309)

The accepted paradigm of foreign animal disease preparedness in Canada, the emergency for which to prepare, starts with identification of the exotic viral agent in a Canadian farm animal population. This narrative focuses on the containment of the infectious agent, within diseased animals, on infected premises. Framing the emergency as a disease incursion limits rational imagination to only one version of one potential animal emergency. This framing of the problem directs the carcass disposal solutions to consider only methods to dispose of viral infected material. However, in all documented responses to catastrophic swine diseases in the past three decades, the number of uninfected animals caught up in movement control zones and killed greatly exceeds the number of infected animals killed. The temporary closures of slaughterhouses in spring 2020 due to COVID-19 transmission resulted in thousands of healthy market hogs surplus to market; an unanticipated emergency of healthy pigs. This paper proposes an alternate carcass disposal option for material from uninfected farms. “Excarnation by exposure” is a natural process of debulking and dehydrating carcasses by blow fly larvae, mitigating financial costs of final disposal. Excarnation by exposure is a reasonable and possibly necessary additional option for the management of uninfected carcasses in a catastrophic emergency response in commercial pigs.


Perineal urethrostomy in male dogs — Technique description, short- and long-term results

Colin J. Taylor, Daniel D. Smeak (page 1315)

The perineal urethrostomy (PU) technique has only been vaguely described in the dog. Additionally, details of short- and long-term postoperative complications are not well documented. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of PU in male dogs and describe the postoperative course. Eight adult, intact, male, mixed-breed dogs were used for this study. A perineal urethrostomy was performed on each, using the described technique. Dogs were assessed daily for 70 to 419 d after surgery, and stoma site patency was assessed at planned intervals using a 12 French Foley catheter as well as a 5.5-mm rigid cystoscope. Surgical time and short- and long-term complications were recorded. The perineal urethrostomy stoma sites of all 8 dogs were determined to be patent and no strictures were identified during the entire time course of this study. No major complications occurred during the follow-up period. Three dogs developed minor, self-resolving incisional dehiscence. The mean surgery time was 62.9 ± 14.1 minutes (mean ± SD). Canine perineal urethrostomy as described can be performed with minimal short- and long-term complications.

Long-term follow-up of spinal segmental stabilization for surgical treatment of dorsal hemivertebrae associated with kyphosis in brachycephalic dogs

Daphne Mavrides, Marios Charalambous, Paul Freeman (page 1323)

The aim of this study is to report chronic complications (> 2 mo after surgery) following spinal segmental stabilization (SSS) to treat myelopathy associated with thoracic congenital vertebral malformations in brachycephalic dogs. Follow-up medical records (years 2006 to 2020) of 12 cases that underwent SSS at 3 university hospitals were retrieved and analyzed with a minimum follow-up period of 1 y. Five dogs showed no chronic complications and 7 dogs had chronic complications which are reported here. This case series demonstrates that the rate of chronic complications associated with SSS was high (58%) but most of these were minor and did not require revision surgery.

Descriptive study of a method for identification of the pylorus by ultrasound in lactating Holstein cows

Clément Maincent, Marie Babkine, Hélène Lardé, Sylvain Nichols (page 1328)

The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identification of the pylorus, in lactating Holstein cows, based on ultrasound examination and the use of external anatomical landmarks such as the mammary vein (anulus venae subcutaneae abdominis). An ultrasound method based on successive identification of 4 internal anatomical landmarks was developed. The procedure was performed 157 times, on clinically healthy lactating Holstein cows, with a portable ultrasound machine equipped with a 3.5 MHz curvilinear probe. The pylorus was identified with a success rate of 98.7% (155 times out of 157 procedures). The average position of the pylorus was noted near the entrance of the right mammary vein, with a craniocaudal and dorsoventral dispersion. This ultrasound method of identifying the pylorus is simple, effective, and rapid.

Combination vinblastine and palladia for high-grade and metastatic mast cell tumors in dogs

Johanna E. Todd, Sandra M. Nguyen, Joanna White, Veronika Langova, Penelope M. Thomas, Sophia Tzannes (page 1335)

High-grade and metastatic canine mast cell tumors carry a guarded prognosis because of their unpredictable biologic behavior. An ideal chemotherapy regime is yet to be established. The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and toxicity of combination vinblastine and toceranib for high-grade and metastatic mast cell tumors. Twenty-eight dogs were categorized with either high-grade, lymph node metastasis or Stage IV disease. Demographics, disease, and treatment variables were compared between categories (Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous data and Fisher’s Exact test for categorical data). Survival times and progression-free intervals (PFI) were calculated and compared between groups (log rank test). The PFI was 310 d [95% confidence interval (CI): 155 to 1425] and overall survival was 373 d (95% CI: 226 to 1219). There was no difference between disease categories for PFI (P = 0.9) or survival (P = 0.5). The protocol was well-tolerated with increased liver enzyme activity and gastrointestinal toxicity most frequently observed. Progression-free intervals and survival times were similar in dogs with high-grade, metastatic and Stage IV disease.

Student Paper

Pancytopenia secondary to suspected idiosyncratic phenobarbital reaction in a dog

Olivia Oberholster (page 1341)

A 4-year-old neutered male St. Bernard-mastiff crossbred dog showed clinical signs of lethargy and anorexia after being administered phenobarbital for the treatment of idiosyncratic seizures. A complete blood (cell) count revealed pancytopenia. Auto-agglutination and Coombs tests were negative suggesting that an immune-mediated cause was unlikely; therefore, an idiosyncratic reaction to phenobarbital was suspected. Supportive care and control of seizures with zonisamide was initiated and clinical signs improved. Blood values were monitored closely and returned to normal after 3 wk.

Quiz Corner

(page 1283)

Acknowledgment of Reviewers/Translators

(page 1271)


Letter to the Editor

License restrictions for volunteer work

Marie Hardy (page 1273)


Veterinary Telemedicine is not only here to stay, it’s poised to grow and likely exponentially

John Kastelic, Tim Ogilvie (page 1277)

Veterinary Medical Ethics

(page 1281)


Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault (page 1285)

One Health

Collective global amnesia. One Health’s greatest challenge

Craig Stephen (page 1345)


Index of Advertisers

(page 1346)

Industry News

(page 1347)

New Products

(page 1349)


(page 1350)