CVJ - March 2022, Vol. 63, No. 3



Observational study on antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from Ontario calf samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory from 2007 to 2020

Tamaki Uyama, David Renaud, Stephen LeBlanc, J. McClure, Durda Slavic, Charlotte Winder, David Kelton (page 260)

The objectives of this study were to i) describe Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates; ii) investigate the temporal trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles; and iii) evaluate the impact of season and age on these AMR profiles from diagnostic and post-mortem samples in Ontario calves ≤ 2-months-old submitted from 2007 to 2020 to the Animal Health Laboratory in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were measured by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. A total of 1291 isolates with AMR profiles were obtained from calves, with E. coli (n = 434) and Salmonella (n = 378) being the most common bacteria characterized for AMR. For E. coli, 79% of isolates tested showed a positive result in F5/K99, whereas for Salmonella isolates, S. Typhimurium (33%) and S. Dublin (22%) were the 2 most common serotypes identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to evaluate AMR profiles for E. coli (n = 414) and Salmonella (n = 357) to each antimicrobial tested. Most E. coli isolates (91%) and Salmonella isolates (97%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested. In general, E. coli and Salmonella had higher odds of resistance in calves aged ≥ 2 wk compared to 1-week-old calves, and little difference was seen in the level of resistance over the years observed or between seasons in most of the antimicrobials tested. Prospective research should investigate potential risk factors for the development of AMR in calves examples being antimicrobial use and farm management practices.

Evaluation of the 4-point regional nerve block using 2% lidocaine in sheep

Katharine M. Simpson, David C. Van Metre, Tanya J. Applegate, Jared D. Taylor, Jeruesha Johnson, Kelly Still Brooks, Khursheed R. Mama (page 269)

To determine whether a single 4-point regional nerve block using 2% lidocaine administered distal to the fetlock of sheep with a single distal limb lameness will result in analgesia of the digits.

Eighteen adult ewes with a single limb lameness originating from distal to the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint were enrolled in the study.

Digital lameness was confirmed and scored based on clinical examination. Pain associated with digital lesions was assessed in triplicate using a pressure algometer to quantify mechanical nociceptive threshold. The same procedure was repeated on the contralateral limb as a control, and maximum force and time to response recorded. A 4-point regional nerve block was performed using 8 mL of 2% lidocaine. Mechanical nociception was again applied in triplicate to both limbs as described above, by a blinded investigator. Following appropriate medical treatment, the ewe was released and lameness scoring repeated.

Median values for pressure and time to withdrawal were determined for affected and control limbs, and differences between pre- and post- lidocaine block measures were compared using Friedman’s ANOVA test. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was used to compare lameness score pre- and post-block. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05.

Main findings
Application of the 4-point block resulted in a change in pressure required to elicit withdrawal (F-value 17.7; P < 0.0001) as well as time to withdrawal (F-value 20.4; P < 0.0001), for the affected limb as compared to the control limb. Lameness scores decreased following the block (Signed-rank statistic 85.5; P < 0.0001).

Principal conclusion
The 4-point nerve block resulted in anesthesia of the distal limb in sheep in this clinical model.

Case Reports

The use of a caudal auricular axial pattern flap for repair of a degloving pinna wound in a dog

Karuna R. Katariwala, Nicole J. Buote (page 275)

A 3-year-old male neutered French bulldog was presented for an anatomical degloving injury of the left pinna following a conflict with a larger dog at a park. Approximately 2/3 of the dorsal skin was removed from the convex surface of the left pinna along with an irregular, full thickness injury on the lateral aspect of the pinna distal to the cutaneous marginal pouch. A caudal auricular axial pattern flap (CAAPF) was used to reconstruct the pinna. The flap healed with no noted necrosis over the long-term. Postoperative cellulitis was noted for approximately 3 mo. The dog was medically managed for bilateral otitis externa multiple times over the course of recovery. Long-term function and cosmesis at 1.5 y after surgery revealed adequate functional movement of the pinna and acceptable cosmesis. It is concluded that, rather than a pinnectomy, a CAAPF can be offered as a surgical option in dogs that have injuries localized to the pinna.

Key clinical message: A CAAPF is an alternative to pinnectomy for reconstruction of the pinna after degloving injury and yields a functional and cosmetically acceptable outcome.

Simultaneous occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease and trichomonosis in a Maine coon cat

César A.R. Santos, Jéssica C. Melo, Letícia H.T.S. Sampaio, Lorena C. Ferari, Fernanda B.C. Moura, Fúlvia B. Souza, Priscila E. Kobayashi, Carlos E. Fonseca-Alves, Priscylla T.C.G. Okamoto, Sheila C. Rahal, Alessandra Melchert (page 281)

A 2-year-old, 4.2 kg, spayed female, Maine coon cat was referred to the veterinary hospital for evaluation of hyporexia, slow growth, and chronic, intermittent, mucoid, bloody, voluminous, and fetid diarrhea. The diarrhea had been observed since the cat was acquired from a cattery at 4 months of age; with acute worsening in the 5 d before presentation. Abdominal palpation revealed moderate pain. Ultrasonographic examination showed thickening of the jejunal wall and ileal loops, increased echogenicity of the jejunal mucosa, and enlargement of the jejunal and ileocolic lymph nodes. Histopathology of full-thickness intestinal biopsies showed moderate, diffuse, lymphoplasmacytic, erosive enteritis with hemorrhage and edema. Diffuse, lymphoplasmacytic, erosive colitis with mild, interstitial fibrosis and hemorrhage was also noted. The ileocecal lymph node biopsy showed eosinophilic lymphadenitis. Based on the immunohistochemical evaluation of intestinal samples with CD3 and CD79a antibodies, a diagnosis of lymphoma was ruled out. Fecal polymerase chain reaction testing was positive for Tritrichomonas foetus. Based on these results, inflammatory bowel disease and trichomonosis were diagnosed. Treatment for the cat included a hypoallergenic diet and an oral omega-3 fatty acid supplement, in conjunction with prednisolone, to manage the inflammatory bowel disease. Ronidazole was administered to target the Tritrichomonas foetus. The cat was clinically normal during a follow-up examination after 6 months of treatment.

Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in a Canada lynx with phacoclastic uveitis

Geneviève Lavallée, Stephanie C. Osinchuk, Dennilyn Parker, Marina Leis, Lynne S. Sandmeyer (page 285)

A 4-year-old male Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) was referred to the ophthalmology service at the University of Saskatchewan with a 7-month history of cataract and chronic phacoclastic uveitis secondary to penetrating trauma from a lynx claw. Ophthalmic examination of the right eye revealed a corneal scar, marked aqueous flare, extensive fibrovascular membranes extending from the iris to the lens, anterior and posterior synechiae, immature cataract, and anterior vitritis; the fundus was not visible. Phacoemulsification surgery and intraocular lens implantation using a custom lens of D+46 and 14 mm (An-vision, West Jordan, Utah, USA) was performed. Post-operative medications included sub-conjunctival injections of atropine, cefazolin, and triamcinolone, and oral doxycycline and prednisolone. At the 5-month follow-up, the uveitis was controlled, and a normal fundus was visualized; at 21 mo, the eye remained comfortable and visual.

This is the first case report to describe phacoemulsification in a wild felid as a treatment for a traumatic cataract and severe phacoclastic uveitis.

Key clinical message: Despite chronic phacoclastic uveitis, phacoemulsification surgery can provide a positive outcome for mature wild felids with traumatic lens rupture, even when topical treatment cannot be administered.

Bilateral second pharyngeal cleft cysts in 2 calves on the same farm

R. Madison Ricard, Kelly C. Lightfoot, Jaidyn Burton, Bruce K. Wobeser (page 292)

Pharyngeal cleft cysts (also called branchial cleft cysts) are rare congenital defects of the pharynx region that appear as soft, fluctuant cystic structures on the ventral neck. These cysts are formed by anomalous regression of the pharyngeal clefts during embryonic development and are lined by pseudostratified columnar to squamous, partially ciliated epithelium on histopathology. Development of these cysts is sporadic, with no currently identified risk factors in veterinary species. The cysts are typically unilateral, and primarily diagnosed in mature animals of various species. The objective of this article is to report 2 cases of bilateral second pharyngeal cleft cysts in 2 calves with no shared pedigree, located on the same farm. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of geographically linked second pharyngeal cleft cysts in veterinary species, and the first cases of bilateral cysts in cattle.

Key clinical message: Pharyngeal cleft cysts are an important differential for soft, fluctuant, and cystic structures on the ventral neck of all species. These cases are typically unilateral, diagnosed in mature animals and are sporadic with no currently identified risk factors in veterinary species.

Brief Communications

Buyer beware! Disease testing newly arrived cattle to dairy farms in Ontario

David L. Renaud, Natalia Savor, Jessica Gordon, David F. Kelton, Cynthia Miltenburg (page 297)

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the presence of infectious disease in newly arrived cattle on dairy farms in Ontario. Cattle that were more than 2 years old and arrived at dairy farms within the previous year were tested. A total 321 cattle from 56 dairy farms were sampled and had blood submitted to a diagnostic laboratory. Of all sampled cattle, 0.0%, 39.6%, 2.2%, and 1.3% tested positive for Anaplasma, bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and Salmonella Dublin, respectively. Based on these results, it is imperative that dairy producers are vigilant to ensure they do not purchase animals with these important and untreatable infectious diseases.

Quiz Corner

(page 241)


President’s Message

You cannot see the whole sky through a bamboo tube Japanese proverb

Louis Kwantes (page 233)

Veterinary Medical Ethics

(page 237)


Heather Broughton, Sophie Perreault (page 243)

Animal Welfare

Animal protection reporting requirements of Canadian veterinarians: Example case

ennis D. Will, Terry L. Whiting (page 301)

Veterinary Practice Management

Inflation, wage growth, and service constraints: The case for raising fees in 2022

Chris Doherty, Darren Osborne (page 307)

Diagnostic Ophthalmology

Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Stephanie Osinchuk (page 311)

Veterinary Dermatology

Juvenile cellulitis (juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis) in a 9-week-old puppy treated with prednisolonecyclosporine combination therapy

Jangi Bajwa (page 313)



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Industry News

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Index of Advertisers

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